Showing posts with label Arthur. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Arthur. Show all posts

Saturday, 24 June 2017

The High Cabal

"When we also understand that leaders of this world recognize a High Cabal... I myself cannot disbelieve the existence of a High Cabal...the High Cabal very probably includes Asians and more probably is led by Asians. 

I wouldn't argue that, I don't know how to explain it, except if you watch rain fall, you notice it all runs in accordance with gravity."

- Col. L. Fletcher Prouty

An earlier group of Asiatic peoples depicted entering Egypt c. 1900 BC, from the tomb of a 12th Dynasty official Khnumhotep II under pharaoh Senusret II at Beni Hasan.

The Existence of a High Cabal or Power Elite

Ratcliffe: You write in the Freedom magazine articles [which became the initial "raw material" for the 1992 JFK book] about this High Cabal (others have called them the Power Elite or the Cryptocracy): this group that people like Buckminster Fuller and Winston Churchill have referred to as very real and influential existing largely behind the scenes. We were discussing the other day the significance of the philosophy that derived from knowing that the world was finite, with the explorations of Magellan, who wanted to keep going west to see what he would find -- and how such knowledge formed institutions like the Haileybury College and then the British East India Trade Company. Can you reiterate that marvelous description -- your sense of this changing world view once it was known that the world was no longer flat, that it was a closed unit.

Prouty: There is no shortage of experienced writers who, for various reasons, allude repeatedly to, I like Churchill's term best, a "High Cabal." This is attributed to Churchill by Lord Denning in his very good book, A Family Affair. Lord Denning corresponds to our Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, the senior law officer in the United Kingdom. In the book he recounts a story about World War II and the heavy bombardment in England and in Europe. Denning states that his brother, who was an officer with British Naval Intelligence, was working on duty late at night in an underground subterranean area that was between Ten Downing Street and an underground shelter where Churchill used to stay during bombing attacks. The Navy, being as alert as ever, stocked this area where Commander Denning was working, with a few high-quality bottles of brandy.

When, on many occasions, Churchill would walk through their office, the Commander would invite the Prime Minister to sit down and have a brandy. One particular night, after there had been a heavy bombardment on London, and they knew that Rotterdam was under attack, Churchill was sitting there sipping his brandy and he said, almost as if speaking to himself, "You know, an all-out battle on land, and heavy battles in the sea, and this total bombardment over Rotterdam and over London, the High Cabal is operating here". And he referred to this being the wishes of the High Cabal. Now unfortunately, Lord Denning doesn't go any further with the reminiscences of his brother. But maybe they didn't go any further. Maybe Churchill just said that much.

I was at the Cairo Conference, where Churchill was. I was in his group; I was close enough to directly witness some of what was going on. I flew the British staff officers back and forth from where some of them stayed in Palestine during the Cairo Conference and talked with them a lot about the progress of the conference. Later I was at the Teheran Conference, where Churchill was. I lived across the street from Churchill when he was convalescing. (After these conferences he had a case of pneumonia in Marrakesh, Morocco.) Now I can't say that Churchill was any intimate of mine, but I was close enough to observe people that worked with him, and the military people who worked for him. I talked with them a lot. And we had the feeling that Churchill, certainly, is a senior person (as was Roosevelt, as was Stalin) in the world, but that there seems to be a level that maybe he listens to. Maybe this is what Denning was referring to -- because Churchill describes a High Cabal.

He's not the only one. Buckminster Fuller, a rare individual, has spent more time, at the invitation of Congress, before Congressional hearings than any other individual, with the probable exception of Admiral Rickover, advising Congress on different issues relating to the government. But interestingly enough, he has spent more time in the Kremlin as an advisor to the Soviets than he has in our own Congress. He worked with President Kubitschek in setting up the new Brazil. A rare individual. A man who knows the world and knows the leaders of the world. He writes about a "power elite," and that the apparent leaders, as we see them throughout the world, are certainly national leaders, but they're not the top echelon, the High Cabal.

In history you will find that the Chinese, as far back as 2,000 years ago, speak of a High Cabal that they call the "Gentry" -- and that the Chinese seem to have accepted that as a fact of life. Even though they had their emperors and their monarchs and leaders, they realized there's an echelon above that which directs some of the events that other people know nothing about. It's Fuller who hits the nail on the head. He says that the secret of the High Cabal is -- of course, it's control of power, but it is also the understanding that their most valuable asset is anonymity: that nobody can identify them. In that sense, you begin to talk, you begin to think: maybe they're just like angels or like ghosts, people say they're there, but, are they really?

I don't think it's that. In fact, I think that perhaps what people think of in terms of ghosts or angels, may be the reality that there is an echelon within our world, a small structure, that does really determine how things go. And I wouldn't argue the point. Because in my own experience in more than 80 countries -- and I have talked directly to presidents of countries and people on their level -- I have this feeling that they're taking their instructions from some other place. Now that may be personal, but I notice it in the writings of others as well.

Magellan's Circumnavigation of the Globe: 
The Philosophy That Derived From Knowing the World Was Finite

You wonder what is the source or the origin of this. I don't know how long we want to say mankind has been on Earth, but let's say 30 or 40 thousand years -- maybe longer in certain manifestations, but we'll settle for that. Over this 30 or 40 thousand years, society has lived on an Earth that wasn't flat, wasn't round, all it was was an expanse. Because there weren't enough people to fill it up at any given location. They had no problem with space. They didn't even think about the word "property," in the sense of real property, real estate. They simply lived there.

If hostility grew between two communes, two villages, one or the other would be forced to move a little bit. There's always some more space over there. And they weren't bothered with our retroactive view of that: that they had a flat-land approach and that we know the world is round and therefore they were pretty stupid. It wasn't that. It's just that they had another place to go. If they had to graze cattle, they'd move a little further. And if, on one of these moves, they ran into some other people they had never met before, then they accepted there were other people on Earth. But they were all on the same expanse. They didn't know whether the expanse was flat or curved or what it was.

They did know that it came to a shoreline, that there were oceans. And they were prone to follow shorelines, as the South Asians did thousands of years ago as they progressed north across Bering Straits (which at that time was a land bridge), down through North America, and even into Central America. If you dig in the mummies' tombs, in the burial grounds of Peru, you will find that on their huacos -- the ancient bowls and jars that they made -- are figures of people who have slant eyes, Oriental eyes. That meant, when a person was making the jar, she made the jar in the image of the people that she knew -- with slanted eyes. They didn't know there were any other people.

But, in all of this civilizing of mankind over these 30 or 40 thousand years, there occurred finally an event that changed the entire prospect of their history. And we can't always say, "Well, they didn't have written history." Evidence from China is that their written history goes way back -- far, far back -- much more so than we think. But that's not all of it. History forms each generation as they remember the important things it distills. In the voyages around the world, navigators -- especially, we think, in the area of the islands of the South Pacific and around Indonesia and that area -- the navigators began to be able to find their way across the Pacific to other islands, to other lands, and then back again.

The leading, most important people in those countries in those days were the navigators, because they could come and go, they could find their way. They knew the stars, is what it amounted to; they understood the winds. And gradually these navigators began to say that, perhaps we could go further around the world and keep going. This became a prospect -- something they could do -- like we think we can put a man on Mars and we know we can do it.

In Portugal one of these navigators was named Magellan. He got in trouble somehow with his own government, or else he couldn't be supported by his own government and he went over to Spain. The Spanish king decided he would support Magellan's expedition in which he wanted to start out going to the west and keep going to the west -- which seemed like a good idea -- he wanted to try it anyway. Others had gone to the west, like Columbus, and they hit shore and turned around and came back, so that we found "India," but he had only gone part way. But the people didn't have the idea in those days that they could keep going except going in a flat way, and when they hit land they figured they'd been there. They didn't think of the Earth in terms of a sphere. It's quite important.

So, not only did the royalty of Spain agree to finance Magellan's voyage (it was several ships), but, interestingly enough, the bankers of Antwerp, in Belgium, poured money into this because they could see it as a means of taking over new lands, new wealth, gold, tin, silver, and all those spices and other trade goods. So they financed his trip, and three ships took off.

Years later, in the same harbor back in Spain, one single ship named the Victoria returned. When the Victoria landed and they told how Magellan was killed while they were in the Philippines, they also reported that they had discovered new territories, all the way along their voyage. That they had gone west all the time and had completely circumnavigated the earth which must therefore be a round globe. There's one fact about a sphere that everybody knows: its surface is finite. If you have a basketball you can measure to the nth degree how much surface area it has. And if you have an 8,000-mile-diameter globe you can measure to the degree how much surface it has.

This majestic realization changed the mind of man as a group, more than any other single event that happened in the 40,000 years we've been here. Because from that moment on, these bankers in Antwerp, and their associates, and the kings and queens of Europe, began to realize: If this earth is a sphere, it is then finite. And if it's finite, there's only so much land, there's only so much tin, so much gold, so much spice. And they looked at the world as something that belonged to them -- if they got there first.

The Development of the East India Companies 
and "Proprietary" Colonies

This started a significant train of thought in the educated, financial, politically powerful groups of the world, particularly the European world. It was expressed most easily in the terms of the East India Company development. They had the British East India Company, the Dutch East India Company, there was a Spanish East India Company -- I think there were eight of them -- and, interestingly enough, there was a Russian East India Company. I forget what they called it, but the Russians explored the coast of Alaska and California. The Russians, in conjunction with shippers from Boston in the China trade, carried out a sea otter business (in the fur of sea otters) from California back to Canton, China, and on into Europe. It was one of the most valuable, one of the most profitable, sea ventures of the time.

So all of these countries were doing this together. They all immediately set out to explore the world, to inventory it and to own it. The leaders in this were the British. And the British East India Company became dominant in this worldwide exploration. They achieved this dominance by their view that anything they discovered was theirs, and that the king could commission them to set up a proprietary colony -- wherever they discovered land -- a British proprietary colony. Now what that meant was, they could introduce their religion to the colony and their armies to the colony -- and then do business in the colony. But the word "colony" was not exactly accurate, because they used everything from total slaughter of the people they ran into to total friendship, depending on how they got along with those people.

But their idea was whatever part of the world they went to was theirs. Property for the other guy was zero and property for them was total. As I said previously, in an earlier day the navigators were the senior elite people in the country. The elite people now became surveyors. If we think of history in that period, we ask ourselves: What was George Washington's business here in the United States? He was a trained surveyor. He worked for Lord Fairfax and other landowners solely because the king had granted them a charter, from London, to come to North America and take over land between one fix on the beach and another. Then have men like George Washington, with their surveying instruments, just draw lines heading for the west, not knowing where the Pacific Ocean was but going in that direction.

The concept that everything in the world belonged to the East India Company (or, to the King of England, or the King of Holland, or the King of Germany) was really a strange development, arising from the realization that the Earth was spherical and therefore finite and that they must acquire property. Mankind was beginning to develop the concept of the ownership of property.

This continued for a century or more until it became an enormously big business. These East India Companies were dominating countries like India, even countries like China. They were dominating North America, and so on, as they moved around the world. The British again led the others in training people for these jobs. They created a college, called Haileybury College, where they not only trained the people in the financial aspects of all this business work all over the world, but in military -- special military, you might say. They weren't trained to be world conquerors in the Alexander the Great or Julius Caesar mold; they were trained to run a constabulary, to control these countries they took over, and to help their business partners (in the East India Company) carry out their business enterprises in those countries.

In addition to that, they trained missionaries. Because they soon realized that, in the rest of the world there was, from their point of view, no religion: they were all just pagans. This reminds me of the Vietnam days -- that any Vietnamese was a mere gook. Well here these people all over the world were mere pagans. And of course, you can't live in a world with pagans. You have to bring your missionaries and convert them to Christianity.

So this became a role. And they used to go into these "proprietary colonies" with their missionary leaders first and try to peacefully set up, their arrangements for living with these people, for converting these people, and actually taking over their land and taking over their businesses. But if the missionary half of their business didn't work by itself (because they were overwhelming these people anyway with their strength and their power and their money and their imports), then they would bring in their military. So, one way or the other, they just took over land all over the world, took over business, took over people.

Inventorying Earth: Haileybury College 
and the Roles of Malthus and Darwin

In the process, their masters (the top people, the governor of the East India Company) realized that what they were really after was to learn what the assets of the entire Earth were. And in a most interesting development, they set up an economic studies department in the Haileybury College. Economics is not an old profession (not an old science, as some people want to call it). For Head of the Economics Department they installed a man named Thomas Malthus. The interesting fact was that Malthus was given the job of inventorying Earth -- an absolutely incomprehensible job when you figure that this happened at the turn of the century, about 1800 (1800, 1805, somewhere in there). The East India Company had been started around 1600. So for two centuries they'd been doing this work, preparing themselves for this business. They had become an extremely lucrative company. But now they were getting serious: they wanted to inventory Earth. And Malthus was given that job.
As he progressed in this study, Malthus came up with his theory that the world was going to come to an end because mankind was increasing at a geometric rate and food was increasing at an arithmetic rate, and that mankind would overwhelm the production of food quantities not too far in the future. That was a necessary theory for these people in this East India Company because, as they inventoried Earth, it made it an incentive for them to have the food, to have the resources for themselves but not for the other people. It began to create almost what we have in the Cold War today: an "us or them" mentality. The more friction there is in an "us or them" situation, the more motivation there is on your side to get the job done, including armies, missionaries, and all the rest of the powerful tools we have.

This moved along for another 30 or 40 years, and among the men that Malthus sent out to help inventory Earth was Charles Darwin. Darwin went all over Latin America and beyond, studying birds, butterflies, and everything he found and then he came back. He began to report that there are all sorts of life growing in and on this Earth. And he came back with picture books of all the different birds he found, the fish that he found, and a great deal else, from all over the world. Then he began to organize these species of the world.

As he began to tell this to his colleagues in the East India Company and at Haileybury, they began to get formulate the question of what, after all, is the origin of species? Where do they come from, and what keeps them going, and how do we get one species here and another one there? We know that Darwin wrote this book called The Origin of Species. The interesting point is that he was rather reluctant to write this book. He was a true professional. He saw his business in certain terms, but he knew he hadn't proved anything about the origin of species; he didn't want to call it Origin of Species. In fact if I remember, it's about page 53 before he gets into that part of his book. But it's an interesting point. He did proclaim that, among all the species, or among the internal groupings within the species, those that were fittest survived and those that weren't presumably didn't survive. It was an interesting observation that he came up with.

Looking at the situation of the East India Company, these two men played an important role -- a very important role for them in their day and for us 150-200 years later. The first conclusion was that mankind is increasing too fast and food is going to give out. Second, in the event there is this conflict and that we can't all live, the fittest are going to survive. If you put the two together and think about it, what it means is if you have the better army, the better business, more power, and your people can conquer the others -- even to the point of genocide -- that's perfectly all right. Because they're going to die anyway and, because they died, they certainly weren't the fittest, we're the fittest. What it did was to begin to inculcate in the minds of these leaders, these top leaders and these extremely wealthy people, that there's nothing wrong with genocide. Furthermore, they had their own missionaries right along with them to show that all this is perfectly all right: this was the plan, this was the way the world was made.

It's startling to see what conclusions were drawn from the realization that the Earth is spherical, therefore finite; that it needed to be inventoried, that certain powers needed to control all of the property of Earth. As we progress through the years, we're talking about days that aren't too far behind us. In all the thirty to forty thousand years of mankind, we're only talking about that narrow little space between 1600 and 2000 -- 400 years. And since new ideas spread very slowly, the first 200 of those 400 years really don't count for much. Those were the years when they were exploring, finding the Earth they didn't even know existed, getting used to the fact that you could go to the west coast of California from England, and so on -- that there was a route, that you could make the trip. That took about 200 years.

By the time they got that organized, then they got themselves involved in the Napoleonic Wars of Europe, much of which had to do with this business of conquering Earth, inventorying Earth. And you're not too far from World War I, and you're not too far from World War II. In other words, what I'm saying is: this cycle is not over. We haven't finished the inventory of Earth, we haven't finished who owns what.

But we have defined the idea of property. Property now, right down to the last inch -- the middle of Tokyo, a square foot of ground is selling for thousands of dollars. There are sections of this that are quite interesting. I read in the newspaper not too long ago that some property in Africa had been taken from native groups and they decided to give some of it back. And the section of that property was called the Jesuit Square. As I recall what I read (and I wish I had the figures here), I think the Jesuit Square is about 15,000 square miles. In other words, as these missionaries moved ahead in this inventory process and just assumed ownership of this land, they were taking over so much land that 15,000 square miles was just a square. Like, what do we call a square mile? -- 640 acres is a square mile, a one-mile square, isn't it?

This figure is the same figure that was used when the Spanish East India Company began to go into what we now call New Mexico, Arizona, and Southern California. In the old land titles it still speaks of Jesuit Square. This was a formal application of the missionary role on into these so-called unexplored countries. Everything was from the point of view of Europe. The fact that there were hundreds of thousands of people living somewhere was not acknowledged. It was called "unexplored." They simply ignored the fact those people were there; it wasn't explored by British. Like the discovery of America. We keep saying Columbus discovered America -- and the British explorers came, and so on to the Pilgrims coming to America. My god, America was overrun with people! But the Europeans discovered America. That's part of the overwhelming significance of this discovery that the Earth was a sphere.

At present we are living in what might be called the apex of this big curve. It certainly isn't over. We're still operating under the principles of Haileybury College -- Malthus and Darwin -- even though both of them are ridiculous. It's been proved today that our ability to produce food is 70 times greater per farmer than it was in the time of Malthus. It's been proved that Darwin never did discover the origin of the species -- no scientist has ever described the origin of any species. But those two doctrines were implanted by the East India Company's mind-control techniques so thoroughly that we still believe them.

It was in 1862 that Lord Oliphant came back from his job as the ambassador to the Ottoman Empire in Turkey, imbued with the spirit that something happens to men's minds in seances. In England he then created the British Society of Psychic Research, which soon took over most of the higher positions in the British government. In fact Lord Balfour, for over 30 years, was either the head of the British Society of Psychic Research or one of his relatives or close associates was. And it's the American wing of the British Society of Psychic Research which created Stanford University and the University of Indiana among others. For instance, Leland Stanford, the great railroad man on the West Coast, claims that he was in a seance talking to his dead son when his dead son told him to create a major university on the West Coast, and there we have Stanford University.

That's something of a humorous little story until you put it in this context. That these enormously powerful leaders, stemming from the East India Company, got into this psychic research arena and even began to impress upon the society of the United States, South Africa -- other parts of the world -- their own beliefs in the power of seances and in the power of mind control.

So to wind this up with a little anecdote: the governor of the East India Company in Bombay, India, was a man named Elihu Yale -- Eli Yale. Yale heard that a small college in New England, specifically in Connecticut, was having trouble getting started. He donated something like $10,000 (which was a lot of money in those days) to help found the college. And we have Yale University (comparable to Harvard) as a result of a gift from the East India Company, from Yale in Bombay, India. In his offices in Bombay (which still exist), on the wall there is the flag of the British East India Company. That flag has seven red bars and six white bars. In the corner it has a blue square, and in that square (or rectangle) is the emblem of the East India Company.

When the Bostonians attacked the ship Dartmouth and threw the tea in Boston Harbor at the Boston Tea Party, they took the flag down off the Dartmouth. It was the East India flag with the red and white stripes and the blue rectangle. They saved it as a memento of that battle. When George Washington went to Boston to assume command of the armies of the rebellion against England, he asked Betsy Ross to take the emblem off the flag and to put stars in its place. All Betsy Ross did that night was not create a flag. She simply snipped out the East India emblem and put in 13 little white stars. And the American flag is the East India flag. So when you hear people of what you might call "ancestral backgrounds" in this country demanding that we pledge allegiance to the flag, you may sometimes wonder if in their seances they don't see the East India flag, instead of the American flag, as the driving force.

They certainly did in the case of Cecil Rhodes, who became the controller of all of the South African area, and a multimillionaire in his day. It was Cecil Rhodes who decided to send emissaries of his own to this country so that he could be sure that the teachings of the East India Company, and of Haileybury College, and of Malthus and Darwin, would be properly inculcated into the minds of Americans, by selecting Rhodes scholars year after year, and having them go to British colleges where they could then come back into our society and become leaders of the events.

All you have to do is look at the historical record to see that Cecil Rhodes's plans were carried out very well. Cecil Rhodes, again, was motivated by the same East India Company philosophy that since the world was a sphere, you had to get property. If you could get the property you would then own the world. And that is their driving force.

Ratcliffe: Pursuing one more step -- and wrapping this all up in the next hour -- your last discussions on the British East India trade company and their way of influencing thought exerted a central influence on the way people thought about things and continue to think about things.

Two Books: The End of Economic Man 
and The Road To Teheran

We were talking about some books the other day and I'd like to touch on two that seem particularly relevant. One you mentioned is by Peter Drucker called The End of Economic Man, written in the early thirties but not published until 1938 or '39. Since then he has become synonymous with the idea of management and capitalistic economics. Could you talk a bit about that?

Prouty: This is very interesting because most of us know Peter Drucker as an advisor and consultant to the biggest businesses in this country. He's synonymous with big business, with free enterprise, with multinational corporations and he just has a new book out and the New York Times scrupulously reviews many of the books he has written and overlooks entirely his first book which is The End of Economic Man.

Peter Drucker I believe is an Austrian, schooled in Germany and Austria, who grew up in the years during the growth of the Nazi Party in Germany, and I believe -- I'm not absolutely sure -- but I believe his family was Jewish. During that era, as a student in their major universities, he began to put together his idea that this Nazism that was growing under Hitler would destroy forever economic man. And his family left Germany and Austria, as many did, and went to England where he published this book, The End of Economic Man.

His premise has been made by others as well, but I don't think any have stated it as clearly as he has: that what the Germans were doing was taking the German society of post World War I (when most people wanted no more war) and the Germany of the Weimar Republic -- reasonably democratic in terms of Germany anyway -- and this Nazism began to turn the German people into various classes of society most resembling a military structure, captains, majors, colonels, generals and so on. So that everything in Germany was being militarized -- boy scouts were militarized, girl scouts were militarized, everything was militarized, and it was all being done with the money and the approval of the very powerful and wealthy people.

He goes into this in great detail. I can't recommend the book highly enough. Everybody should read it because he not only says this is what destroyed Germany, but that it's replication in any other country, England or the United States, would destroy those countries. I think anyone who reads The End of Economic Man today is going to think Peter Drucker was writing about the last decade of the United States as though next year was going to be the beginning of American Nazism or the equal of it. The two things fit hand in glove, but his book was written in 1939 not 1989. Difference in years notwithstanding, no one should omit that book. It's most important and so many things we are doing today appear to be running along that same current. We have war on poverty, we have war in the streets, we have war against AIDS, we have battles of this, we have everybody carrying automatic weapons up and down the streets -- that's what he was talking about. So read the book.

Ratcliffe: Militarize even the war on drugs which seems to threaten so much of our --

Prouty: Everything is a war, not just a program to try to promote an anti-drug mind-set -- everything is a war, as though war was exactly the way we ought to organize druggists and policemen and school teachers as majors and colonels and generals. And the students ought to all wear uniforms. This is what it was all about but I shouldn't talk too much about this because Drucker says this so well I want you to read Drucker's words and not my copy of his words. He describes it best; it becomes frightening when you read the book, there is only one way to think about it.

Ratcliffe: The other book we discussed was something written by Foster Rhea Dulles, another one of the Dulles brothers.

Prouty: No, this is a mystery to me. I have a very good book about the Dulles family that speaks about everybody in the current Dulles family that we know of: John Foster, Allen Dulles, his sister Eleanor, their father and mother and her family and all that sort of thing. This man Foster Rhea Dulles is not mentioned anywhere and I have cross-referenced through every book I can locate, including Who's Who and Writers in America, and I don't find Foster Rhea Dulles. Even as a pseudonym, a nom de plume type of identity, I don't find that.

But the book is remarkable because it is entitled The Road To Teheran. It was written in either '45 or '46 and Teheran is the Teheran Conference of December '43. In this writer's mind he starts with American history back in the Revolutionary War, shows how closely Americans and Russians were related. For instance, John Quincy Adams was our ambassador, or at least our designate, to the court of Catherine the Great and Alexander back in Russia. They travelled to Leningrad, or Petrograd then, and their objectives were to open trade between United States and the Soviet Union and we did have an elaborate trade system. The shipping interests of Boston were widespread -- one of the most important trade routes they had was to the Soviet Union, or to then Russia, old Mother Russia.

Dulles follows this through in a very interesting section in the book regarding the fact that the Russians had moved across the Bering Straits into Alaska (only along the coast, they had no interest apparently in Alaska at that time), down the coast of Western Canada as it is now, and down into what is today California. On the coast of California you can still see old Russian buildings preserved in some of the Park areas. He points out that the Russians who had come to those places were doing exactly as Jacob Astor's people were: they were hunting for fur and they were becoming as wealthy in their area as Jacob Astor was here in the United States as a great fur trader. The fur they traded in was the sea otter.

Interestingly the Russians who went down the California coast went there by dog sled and walking, and their trade was carried out by the shipping firms all the way from Boston. The ships would travel from Boston to the California coast, pick up the sea otter skins by the boat load and move them into the markets, some in Asia and mostly in Europe. He puts in the book that in one ship load they would make between $300,000 and $400,000 profit. Of course three or four hundred thousand dollars in the 1700's is the same as tens of millions of dollars today.

The interesting point was that the Americans and the Russians were working in complete harmony. There was no contest between them. The Russians lived on the west coast, Americans lived and hunted on the west coast, and they were for all intents and purposes friendly.

The point here is that our history with the Russians has been friendly for years. He brings this history back into Civil War, when the Russians refused -- no first of all during the Revolutionary War when the Russians refused to help the British. They would not provide Cossacks (their cavalry) to help the British against the Americans. Which means they were friendly to America. In the Civil War, the same thing. They would not play a role. In fact, the Russians tried to provide equipment to American ships to support the Union forces in the Civil War. Then up to modern times he has some interesting views of our relationship with Russia initially during the Bolshevik revolution which was then overthrown when Lenin began to take power.

The views as he presents them as history don't exactly coincide with this strong Communist bias that we've had. But remember he writes this in the forties when the Soviets were our allies during the war. As he carries this up to the Teheran Conference he more or less draws the conclusion that the agreements at Teheran were natural agreements -- that America and Russia had more frequently been allies or friends or business associates than adversaries. And he leaves the book at 1944, the war ended in 1945, and we had the anti-communist brainwashing era in the late forties, but that's after his book.

So this is a very necessary book for people who want to understand the relationship between our two countries as we come into the present era and begin to understand each other more closely. It's not the equivalent of the book called The Great Conspiracy written by Alfred Kahn but it is as important. I think The Great Conspiracy in 1946, with a rousing introduction by Senator Pepper, is an even better explanation of American and Russian interests with an unusual understanding of the intrigues from England and Germany that were involved in the Bolshevik Revolution and the fighting after that, even to the days after World War I when we had American troops in Vladivostok and events like that and what it was all about.

If we don't read books like The Great Conspiracy or The Road to Teheran , it is very difficult to understand this whole era of anti-communism which was more or less impressed upon the American people. There was no evidence that this was really the state of affairs except it is the traditional situation that any group in power in any nation has to have an enemy. For reasons that are not clearly understood, immediately after World War II it was decided that we had to have an enemy and that communism was it. Since the enemy was communism Russia and China without any other definition, became the enemy. And we've been brainwashed since. That may be changing today or it may not be changing, but I think it is because we also realize that military-type war is probably outdated now on account of nuclear weapons and that warfare from here on will be economic warfare. It will be just as tough, it will kill just as many people, it will cost just as much money, but it will be economic warfare.

The Changing Nature of Warfare: 
From a Military to an Economic Basis

Ratcliffe: A question occurred to me the other day regarding this sense of yours about the change of warfare. As you indicated, you feel the military industrial complexes' influence and pervasiveness will lessen as the new economic warfare intensifies. Particularly in the area of energy as it's currently going now, as well as in the area of food where you feel will become prevalent. What do you think will happen with respect to the organization currently in place that you define as the Secret Team that seems to operate in the industry of military production and trade.
Prouty: I think we have seen an absolutely perfect example of what we're talking about in what is called Arab oil embargo. In the decade leading up to 1973, the price of a barrel of oil that was more or less worldwide had been $1.70. If you wanted to buy a 100,000 barrels of oil you paid 100,000 times a $1.70. And you got the oil. At that price oil was profitable and the oil companies were making enormous profits. The producers like Saudi Arabia and Iraq and Iran and Russia were making profits with their oil. And then all of a sudden they decided they were going to increase the price of oil and by "they" I mean the High Cabal, the people in great money.

It's nothing but a money deal, its nothing but a war, a war like that fought in Vietnam -- it's for money, there's nothing else. We didn't gain a thing except we spent between $250 -- $500 billion dollars fighting a war in Vietnam.

And overnight, the price of oil went up. There was a battle between the Israelis and the Arabs. The story goes that the Arabs as a result of that war declared an embargo on a shipment of oil from the Middle East to the rest of the world and that made the shortage of gasoline in the streets and we could not get gasoline at our favorite gas pumps and we had to pay more and more and more.

We should look back at that carefully. The Arab-Israeli war was not conclusive. The Arabs gained on the first few days way into Israeli territory and then a couple of weeks later the Israelis came back and went quite a way into the Egyptian territory and then the war just ended. It was inconclusive. But all of a sudden the Arabs, according to the press, signalled an embargo on oil. Now that's the most ridiculous thing in the world because the only income these Arabs have is the sale of oil, and furthermore the oil that they produce comes from the ground all by itself under pressure from the earth. They don't have to pump it, they had no great big problem with supplying oil.

As a matter of fact I can show you copies of the Congressional Record in which oil experts from the Middle East reported that exactly at this time of the Arab oil embargo, the storage tanks at the Arab facilities whether it was Kuwait, or Iraq, or Saudi Arabia were overloaded and bursting with oil waiting for ships to come.

A few years later I was asked as a representative of American Railroad System to attend a conference in London at the Chartered Institute of Transport. Among the seminar groups that I met with there was one on petroleum transportation. A gentleman came into that room and lectured to only 8 of us who had come to that class -- I was very glad I went to it -- and one of the Englishmen in the room nudged me as the speaker was coming into the room and said, do you know this gentleman? I said no. He said, this man is a multi-billionaire ship owner.

It occurred to me and has since then, why would a multi-billionaire (in pounds by the way, more than dollars), want to come into a room with 8 people and lecture on petroleum transportation? Though of course a very good reason was that it was all being recorded and would be printed in a book later and so his words would become part of the record and he was very proud of what he had been doing.

What he told us was the same thing as these people reporting to the Congress: that there was no shortage of oil. That what happened was a very well planned system was applied through the tanker industry, and they arbitrarily and absolutely controlled the movement of oil by not picking it up, until the price was right.

Now in 1973, the Middle East produced and sold 15 billion dollars worth of oil. By 1980, the same Middle East produced and sold 300 billion dollars worth of oil. The quantity of oil they produced was not much different. The cost of producing it was not much different. But the sale price was 15 billion dollars in '73 and 7 years later it was 300 billion dollars. I think anyone can understand that for $285 billion profit it's worth doing almost anything in this world today. And that accounts for the Arab oil embargo, the shortage at the fuel pumps, and the fact that we Americans are paying $1.30 a gallon for gas when we used to pay 29 cents a gallon for gas.

This kind of control is the new form of warfare. Now petroleum is not an absolute necessity of life. Energy is, and petroleum is a major factor in energy, but it is close enough to being a necessity so that this shortage of oil, this control of oil, really hurt people all over the world. And especially in the leading nations like ours because overnight they increased one of the major expenses we have in the cost of running an automobile. So this kind of war has as its battlefield the streets of America, the streets of Paris, the streets of London, where our automobiles are; where our trains run; where our airplanes fly.

It is a completely different battle for enormous profits and the control that those profits produce. Because once the price of oil goes up, the price of coal goes up, the price of natural gas goes up, the price of food goes up, and everything else. The cost of trucking becomes higher, and most of our food is moved by trucks. So that when the price of oil went up from 30 cents a gallon up to $1.50 a gallon, all the rest of the price levels went up on the tide of oil. All escalated with the price of oil. And the cost of just plain living, day by day, escalated with the price of oil, and that price of oil was controlled by superpowers -- superpowers control those industries. The catalytic force in that was something as simple as the shipping industry. There is no way to get around the shipping industry.

This was also being explained at these meetings in London. That traditionally, oil from Iraq, the old oil fields of Kirkuk and Mosul, had travelled through a huge system of pipelines that went from Iraq, through Jordan, and to the port of Haifa in what was then Palestine. When the country of Israel was formed, one of the first things the Israelis did, for reasons that are not recorded, is close the pipeline terminus at Haifa. And Iraqi oil could not leave Iraq for the Mediterranean coast and for Europe. Most Iraqi oil is sold and consumed in Europe.

There are 8 other pipelines that extend from Iraq to the Mediterranean. They go to the Port of Sidon in Lebanon, and other ports northward all the way up to Syrian ports. We have seen those pipelines made dry by the Israeli attack on Lebanon. And we wonder why Israel should even bother to attack Lebanon, why Syria should be attacking Lebanon, and why poor old neutral Lebanon, which is nothing but the market garden basket of Europe, is brought to its knees by a perpetual war until we realize that war causes the pipelines from the Middle East to Europe to go dry. This forces the oil onto the ships and under the controls that have been devised by the shipping cartels. This is a fact of life. This is happening right now today.

The fighting in Lebanon is to keep the pipelines dry. The fighting between the Arabs and the Israelis is to keep the oil pipelines dry. Its not religious, it's not political, the Arabs have no choice. The Israelis receive 2-1/2 -- 3 billion dollars aid money from us a year, which is perhaps payment for their assistance. The Egyptians receive 2-1/2 -- 3 billion dollars from us -- the most foreign aid money we pay to any countries in the world, are to Israel and to Egypt. How does Egypt earn its money? It meters the Suez canal to oil and no oil goes through the Suez canal. So the movement of oil causes the tide of prices to rise all over the world, and part of the device is to keep the pipelines of the Middle East dry.

During the Iraq-Iran war, the Iraqis even attempted to build a pipeline through Turkey. They were forced so much to export oil, that they were exporting, I believe, almost a million barrels of oil a day by truck through Turkey. Now, that's not profitable. That adds a terrible cost to oil. They couldn't get it down the river through Abadan because their Persian Gulf ports had been destroyed. The Iranians couldn't get oil out of Iran, their ports had been destroyed. They were bargaining with Turkey to run a pipeline across Turkey out of Iran, and again billions of dollars being spent on that pipeline, which raises the price of oil beyond its economic levels. So the war between Iraq and Iran was simply to create a shortage of oil from those two countries which would create a higher price because of the lesser amount of oil available around the world.

It's this kind of economic control of a major commodity, oil, that is the new type of warfare between nations on earth and we are going to see more of this because it produces such enormous profits. When the Middle East was making $300 billion in 1980 on the oil it exported, that represented about 40% of the world's total, meaning the rest of the world was getting maybe $400 billion for selling its oil. Oil that only 7 years earlier would have sold for $16 to $18 billion. The profits are enormous. They are unbelievable.

Human History and the Composition of the High Cabal

Ratcliffe: I'd like you to discuss more of what you mentioned before regarding your sense of the High Cabal as a unit or group originating perhaps more from an Oriental base of historical roots rather than from a European base. You were telling me the other day about this story of the Chinese travellers who went to the Middle East to study the knowledge of the Arabic people and their whole approach in the way they ran their exploration and your sense of the High Cabal originating in an Oriental cultural basis.
Prouty: We are so prone to study history in a linear fashion from the United States we go back to England, we go back to France and Germany. We go to Rome, we go to Greece, back to the Middle East and to Babylon. And it ends there as though the world began there. If you asked 90 out of 100 Americans where Adam and Eve were born, or appeared, they would say the Middle East. Because almost every formal study of history trickles back that way as though Asia, or Russia, or Indonesia didn't exist. There were no people there. Africa is a great big nothing in terms of history.

Just as a little clue, I was in Kano, in the heart of Nigeria one day. It happened to be one of their celebration days, and there were black men, leaders of Kano, riding horses with coats of linked mail on the horses. And the men were wearing coats of mail armor just like the old medieval knights of yore, like King Arthur's men. I asked some of the people standing there as this parade went by, "Where did these come from, Hollywood, or something like that?" And they said, "No, don't you know?" And a very fine young man sat me down and told me that hundreds and hundreds of years before, the remnants of a lost Crusade, medieval people from Europe, had wandered into Africa and were defeated and captured and that these natives had these original old coats of mail of the horses and of their riders. Now, in Nigeria, they never had horses, they wouldn't need coats of mail because they didn't have horses.

This proves that in Africa, way back in the time of the Crusades, there were people strong enough to defeat the Crusaders, and also to recognize that the loot they captured from those people was worth keeping as historic evidence. In other words, Africa existed in history. In fact another thing I learned from this man I was talking with is that their language is the original language of the Rosetta stone. And the Rosetta stone which was used to translate the hieroglyphics of Egypt had been unfathomable to European scholars until all of a sudden a group of Nigerians travelling in Cairo saw the Rosetta stone and although they couldn't read the hieroglyphics they could read the language on the other side. And they read the language, told the scholars about it, the scholars translated it into English, and then they decoded the hieroglyphics. That's how they solved the story of the Rosetta Stone, and were able to decipher the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics.

The people from Nigeria had this ancient culture which produced the language which is on the Rosetta Stone and for centuries nobody could translate the Rosetta stone forgetting that the Africans had that history and that culture and our history books leave them out with a big zero. We don't know anything about Africans in history. Well, this is true even more so, even to a greater degree when we think about China, and India, and Indonesia, and southeast Asia. They have ancient history.

The history we study through Europe, and back to the Middle East, runs back what? 1000 years before Christ, 2000 years before Christ. Easily the history of India and southeast Asia goes back eleven or twelve thousand years. Easily the history of Indonesia goes back thousands of years and the history of China is almost limitless. It is quite obvious that the Chinese culture, to include the manufacture of such things as cast iron, or the ability to print on paper, goes back long before such things were even contemplated by anyone in even the Middle East or in India.

For reference I would recommend everyone read and study the books of Dr. Joseph Needham of Cambridge University in England. There is a whole series of books and they are absolutely indispensable to an understanding of the true history of man on earth. One of the interesting areas of Needham's work, and some of the other studies of the Chinese people in those days, was that the Chinese had mastered the ability to sail in the oceans as the Portuguese had later on. And the Chinese would follow the coastline down from China, down around southeast Asia, down around Malaysia, and back up to the Burmese coast, across the Bay of Bengal to Calcutta, down the east coat of India, past Ceylon and around the tip of India and on up to Bombay and even around to Arabia and East Africa.

And the story goes that as the Chinese visited port cities on their trips along, it was like a party. As they pulled into port they would stand out there and waive banners and hold gifts in their hands. They would sing songs and they would dance. They wouldn't carry firearms. And the people there met them the same way. They were welcome to stay for years or to stay whatever length of time they wanted, and they opened up trade, and sailed back and forth between these places.

Until one day they arrived in a certain area of the east coast of Africa and they were treated with hostility. And they found out that was as far as the Portuguese had gotten coming around from Portugal around Africa and using guns every time they went ashore, burning villages, stealing whatever they wanted.

And it showed that the Chinese method of exploration had been a party with official ambassadors with presents for the local rulers and all, and the Portuguese system was to use guns and shoot the people.

So we see quite a difference in these cultures and this has led even to a better understanding of their overland exploration. The Chinese having this enormous land mass to their west, had the same interest in exploring the west as we did, wondering how far the west went. The Chinese actually travelled with ambassadors, official people from their government, in parties of 15 or 20, as far as Bagdad. And there such parties would meet the leaders of Bagdad, they would talk and understand each other. The Chinese seem to be very adept at languages and if they didn't know the language, they would sit down and study it and study everything these people had.

There was a very intriguing story of a party that the rulers of China sent back to Bagdad with a very learned leader and some 15 or 20 scholars with him. He would sit and listen to the intelligent people of Bagdad as they explained how they did this, how they did that. Like arithmetic -- the Chinese had not learned the Arabic base for arithmetic, or for mathematics that spread all over the world. And the Chinese were taking notes in shorthand and they would listen and take notes in shorthand and as fast as the Arabs could talk to them they would transcribe it.

This had been going on for a while -- a while meaning years -- when another group of Chinese came and reported that the King, or the emperor, wanted the first group to come back -- for some reason they had to go back. By this time the elderly Chinaman had become good friends with the leader in Bagdad and he said, "Look, I have to return to my country, but I know there is much that we haven't finished studying." He said, "I would like you to give me 7 of your best scholars, each in their own trade, their own specialty, and ask them to dictate to me from their books". And he said, "I want to write it down and take this back to my emperor." And the Arab chief said, "You mean, you are going to write down what 7 men tell you simultaneously?" He said, "yes."

And he did. And after he had been copying for 3 or 4 hours the chief stopped his people and then he asked the Chinaman, "this man from section 3 over here, read back what he told you." He turned his pages, read it back perfectly. "OK, this man, No. 5, read it back." The Chinaman without fault had been taking down the shorthand listening to 7 people simultaneously. I use the figure 7, it might have been 8 or 10. Dr. Needham tells the story with great thoroughness.

What this says is that the Chinese had perfected, and we believe today, they retained this even more so than they had in those days, the ability to write a shorthand that could translate simultaneous lectures, not just one. And simultaneously probably to the number 7, 8, or 9. Dr. Needham gives the exact figure because he has seen it done.

What this means is that when you put all these together -- their culture, their art, their trading, their ability to make cast iron, and bronze, they drilled for oil at 2,000 feet using bamboo pipe -- they were not backward people. This without any question puts the Chinese at a level in history certainly equal to, but probably higher than, the levels of Europe and the Middle East.

Now when we educate ourselves enough to understand that, and as we have said earlier when we also understand that leaders of this world recognize a High Cabal, I think it is ridiculous, since I myself cannot disbelieve the existence of a High Cabal, that the High Cabal very probably includes Asians and more probably is led by Asians. I wouldn't argue that, I don't know how to explain it, except if you watch rain fall, you notice it all runs in accordance with gravity. Well, if you study mankind, you notice there is a sort of gravity in the day-to-day world of mankind, and I don't think it is all happenstance. I think that there is direction from, as Churchill says, the High Cabal. But I also believe that the High Cabal, which can include people from of course any region of the world -- I don't think they recognize countries -- I think the world is just the world for those people, and I believe that it would be strongly manned with Chinese or even probably led by Chinese.

Building a Bridge: Trusting Ourselves 
to Know How to Work and Live Together

Ratcliffe: Fascinating. One last item (we have about 20 minutes here), is the story you told me on the first day I arrived which I found so fascinating of yourself in a class of young officers and this assignment you were given to build a bridge. I'd like you to recount that for us now.
Prouty: It has interested me for many decades, this idea of politics, and this idea of leadership that is thrust upon us, and whether or not this idea is the same as actual human experience and understanding of true leadership. If people are stranded on a desert island, they don't hold an election. They suddenly realize a certain person has a little more experience, a little more gift than the others and they follow him.

The armies of the world are traditionally pretty well trained, pretty well disciplined. Before World War II we saw in the U.S. Army certain things that I'm afraid we don't see today. It got diluted in the great mass movements of World War II and since. But there were people there who tried to impress this previous understanding upon those of us who had been called in before World War II -- when the Army was small. I think the military forces of the U.S. before World War II were about 116,000 if I remember -- and when you figure that 10 million men were flown to Vietnam during the Vietnam War and at any one time we had as many 550,000 you can see what I am talking about.

115,000 in the Armed Forces were not many people. But they were very skilled. And when a new officer, regardless of age, rank or so on, was assigned to a division, the Army had a custom of division officer training. And this division officer training was rather unique as we look back today. Although you'll find such training at Harvard Business School or other places where men are taught how to govern, how to lead people, and so on, how to run a business.

One of the events I have never forgotten because it was so effective, it was just absolutely effective and what we saw deeply impressed us, was that after this group of about 60 men had been together for a week or so, listening to lectures from some of the old time colonels and sergeants and warrant officers, one of the courses they taught us rather superficially, but very interesting, was how to put together a trestle bridge.

In those days, a trestle bridge in the army was all prefabricated including the posts that hold it up, the pilings at the side of the river to hold it up, and the planks on the top, and how they all fit together. The bolts and the nuts and the whole structure was prefabricated but it had to be put together precisely, or it wouldn't work. And every brook or river isn't the same width so you had to be able to lengthen the bridge and sometimes the banks were higher than others so you had to raise the bridge. The bridge could do that -- the prefab's structure was such that it would accomplish that.

There was about a week of courses on the trestle bridge where most of it was taught on paper. Every once in a while they would take us out to a shed and show us the pieces that it consisted of, but we had never worked on it, we just knew what was what. One evening just before sundown, they picked up the whole class, about 60 men, piled us into a couple of army buses and began driving us somewhere without saying where we were going. We had no idea what we were going to do. And they drove us, and drove us (their only objective was to wait until it was dark) and finally stopped in the countryside somewhere beside a rather large field.

We all got out of the buses and a sergeant said, "Gentlemen, your exercise for the evening lies in that field. Its a trestle bridge." We were all with an armored division. He said, "there are two tanks in the field. You are going to build that trestle bridge across a river that is on the other side of this field. You are going to drive the tanks across that bridge and your dinner for the evening is over there, on the other side of the river. You are not to swim over and get dinner. You won't have dinner unless you drive the tanks across the trestle bridge." Then he said, "Now I have one more request. Any of you people that smoke, I want you to give me your matches and your cigarette lighters. You are to have no flashlights. Hand it all in right now." And he collected everything. He said, "Anybody who wants to light up a cigarette, come see me."

Then he sat down quietly with another sergeant and never said another word. He didn't say who was in charge. He didn't say anything. He just walked off. So there was 60 people standing by the side of the road, and he had mentioned "trestle bridge," so some of us went out into the grass and sure enough we stumbled over a couple of pieces here, and a couple of pieces there. They were very neatly packed up, there was no problem with that. And a few others walked over to see what the river looked like and it would be my estimate that it was about 40 feet across, something like that, and the banks were 7 or 8 feet on either side. We could see a bonfire on the other side and a tent was pitched so we knew that our dinner was over there.

Nothing happened very quickly except a little commotion. People talking to each other, "But how do we get this bridge out there?" Then finally 3 or 4 men who knew each other said, "Hey, well at least we got to get this stuff over to the river. Let's start carrying it over there." And another group said, "Well we'll carry these things over there." And gradually some action just sort of came.

But then from among the group, all of a sudden one man began to say, "Look, when you're carrying this over, put this here because this is the piling for the beginning of the bridge." And then, "Look, you 5 fellers swim across and we'll get the other piling over to you by" -- the river wasn't all that deep and you could carry it over there -- "but you get on the other side and work over there while we're working on this side." And finally one man was just saying to each group, "Okay, put it here, do this, let's do this."

Everybody was cooperating beautifully. There was no problem and in an unbelievably short time we had actually got that bridge across the river. We had men beginning to lay the planks on the top, and the cross beams that hold those planks, and the bolts to tighten them down. And gradually we started walking across it with men carrying the planks and the bridge held them up fine.

Once we got the planks down more men started going across with other things and finally this man who had been more or less leading these just nondescript people -- there were chaplains there, there were doctors, we weren't engineers, in fact there wasn't an engineer in the crowd -- finally said, "Well let's take a look at the strength of this thing." So we all stood on one side, it didn't tip, we all went to one end, it didn't tip. We all walked around using our weight to try to decide. We knew tanks were very heavy.

Finally we said okay. It took one man to drive a tank but there was a place for another man to handle the radio and things like that (which you'd ordinarily call the gunner), and we used a third man in the turret to direct the tank because the people inside can't see very much. So we got two crews of 3 men who could handle the tanks. The first crew drove the first one around and with great care we aimed the first tank across the bridge and it went. Nothing happened. The second crew took the second tank, drove it across, and all the rest of the fellows went over with it and we had an absolutely magnificent dinner.

The next day in class the old colonel that was running this school came in and he said, `Gentlemen, I want to tell you something about yesterday's exercise.' He said, people have lived in communities ever since the dawn of time. They never had an election, they never had politics, they never had a religious hierarchy. What they had was themselves, usually the elder led the village because he obviously had experience. If he had been disabled or if he wasn't quite as bright as others, they could push him aside, but usually the elder led the community and he would get things done. But if it came time to go on the hunt and the village was hungry and they really needed some animals, some food, a certain group would break off and among that group they knew who was the best hunter, they knew who was the best tracker, they didn't stop and have an election. There was no boy scout captain, there was no election, they just did the job. The women the same way. Some women could build the houses better than others or some could make cloth better than others.

And he said, that's the way communities -- that's the way armies -- really run. He said the group will find its leader inevitably. He said sometimes when an army is in a terrible battle, and the colonel has been killed and the major has been killed, probably a sergeant will get up and say, Follow me. After citing examples of this from history he said, Gentlemen, what we did yesterday was to prove to you that an absolutely nondescript, untrained group will follow that fact without any agreement, without any election, without any assignment. We didn't assign the leader, we didn't ask you to elect the leader, we didn't say that so and so was an engineer and he has the experience. We left you in the dark and told you come over there and have dinner with us. He said, `Don't ever forget that because military organizations as well as ordinary civil organizations follow those rules. The other rules are more or less applied to our society but these are the basic rules. You need to know that in a war.'

I have never been through a class that had quite the impact on me as that one did and I guess not reluctantly but it did surprise me as I was the officer that led the group across the bridge. Simply because I said to these people who were already beginning to go, Let's put it here and then let's do this, and the group wanted some kind of instruction.

I would gladly have yielded to somebody else, but it wasn't necessary. The bridge got built. I think as I look back at it that much of the problem we have in society is that we don't trust ourselves. The people we elect are most likely not the people that can do the job anyway. Or the people that we might even follow as to quote religious leaders, don't necessarily know all the things that are best for us.

As Buckminster Fuller says the two most powerfully disruptive forces in mankind are politics and religion. Now he doesn't mean politics as I have described it in the village, and he doesn't mean religion as in the basic facts of religion. He means these structured systems we call politics and call religion that really are a form of mind control. In this century I think that as much effort has been applied in certain areas of our leadership to gain mind control over the people of the world as they have over any other kind of control. I think that the very history of an organization we call the British Society of Psychic Research (and its very strong American offshoot) is evidence of the fact that today people are not asked to think. They are told what to think, whether it makes sense or not. I think this is a most fundamental fact of our life today.

Ratcliffe: Thank you very much Fletcher Prouty.

Thursday, 8 June 2017


The First Age of The World is from Adam to Noah 
The Second from Noah to Abraham
The Third from Abraham to David
The Fourth from David to Daniel
The Fifth to John the Baptist
The Sixth from John to The Judgment, 
When our Lord Jesus Christ will come to judge both the living and the dead, and the world by fire.




by Nennius

Translated by J. A. Giles



1. Nennius, the lowly minister and servant of the servants of God, by the grace of God, disciple of St. Elbotus,* to all the followers of truth sendeth health.

     * Or Elvod, bishop of Bangor, A.D. 755, who first adopted in
     the Cambrian church the new cycle for regulating Easter.

Be it known to your charity, that being dull in intellect and rude of speech, I have presumed to deliver these things in the Latin tongue, not trusting to my own learning, which is little or none at all, but partly from traditions of our ancestors, partly from writings and monuments of the ancient inhabitants of Britain, partly from the annals of the Romans, and the chronicles of the sacred fathers, Isidore, Hieronymus, Prosper, Eusebius, and from the histories of the Scots and Saxons, although our enemies, not following my own inclinations, but, to the best of my ability, obeying the commands of my seniors; I have lispingly put together this history from various sources, and have endeavored, from shame, to deliver down to posterity the few remaining ears of corn about past transactions, that they might not be trodden under foot, seeing that an ample crop has been snatched away already by the hostile reapers of foreign nations. For many things have been in my way, and I, to this day, have hardly been able to understand, even superficially, as was necessary, the sayings of other men; much less was I able in my own strength, but like a barbarian, have I murdered and defiled the language of others. But I bore about with me an inward wound, and I was indignant, that the name of my own people, formerly famous and distinguished, should sink into oblivion, and like smoke be dissipated. But since, however, I had rather myself be the historian of the Britons than nobody, although so many are to be found who might much more satisfactorily discharge the labour thus imposed on me; I humbly entreat my readers, whose ears I may offend by the inelegance of my words, that they will fulfil the wish of my seniors, and grant me the easy task of listening with candour to my history. For zealous efforts very often fail: but bold enthusiasm, were it in its power, would not suffer me to fail. May, therefore, candour be shown where the inelegance of my words is insufficient, and may the truth of this history, which my rustic tongue has ventured, as a kind of plough, to trace out in furrows, lose none of its influence from that cause, in the ears of my hearers. For it is better to drink a wholesome draught of truth from the humble vessel, than poison mixed with honey from a golden goblet.

2. And do not be loath, diligent reader, to winnow my chaff, and lay up the wheat in the storehouse of your memory: for truth regards not who is the speaker, nor in what manner it is spoken, but that the thing be true; and she does not despise the jewel which she has rescued from the mud, but she adds it to her former treasures.

For I yield to those who are greater and more eloquent than myself, who, kindled with generous ardour, have endeavoured by Roman eloquence to smooth the jarring elements of their tongue, if they have left unshaken any pillar of history which I wished to see remain. This history therefore has been compiled from a wish to benefit my inferiors, not from envy of those who are superior to me, in the 858th year of our Lord's incarnation, and in the 24th year of Mervin, king of the Britons, and I hope that the prayers of my betters will be offered up for me in recompence of my labour. But this is sufficient by way of preface. I shall obediently accomplish the rest to the utmost of my power.


Here begins the apology of Nennius, the historiographer of the Britons, of the race of the Britons.
3. I, Nennius, disciple of St. Elbotus, have endeavoured to write some extracts which the dulness of the British nation had cast away, because teachers had no knowledge, nor gave any information in their books about this island of Britain. But I have got together all that I could find as well from the annals of the Romans as from the chronicles of the sacred fathers, Hieronymus, Eusebius, Isidorus, Prosper, and from the annals of the Scots and Saxons, and from our ancient traditions. Many teachers and scribes have attempted to write this, but somehow or other have abandoned it from its difficulty, either on account of frequent deaths, or the often recurring calamities of war. I pray that every reader who shall read this book, may pardon me, for having attempted, like a chattering jay, or like some weak witness, to write these things, after they had failed. I yield to him who knows more of these things than I do.


4, 5. From Adam to the flood, are two thousand and forty-two years. From the flood of Abraham, nine hundred and forty-two. From Abraham to Moses, six hundred.* From Moses to Solomon, and the first building of the temple, four hundred and forty-eight. From Solomon to the rebuilding of the temple, which was under Darius, king of the Persians, six hundred and twelve years are computed. From Darius to the ministry of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the fifteenth year of the emperor Tiberius, are five hundred and forty-eight years. So that from Adam to the ministry of Christ and the fifteenth year of the emperor Tiberius, are five thousand two hundred and twenty-eight years. From the passion of Christ are completed nine hundred and forty-six; from his incarnation, nine hundred and seventy-six: being the fifth year of Edmund, king of the Angles.
     * And forty, according to Stevenson's new edition.  The rest
     of this chronology is much contracted in several of the
     manuscripts, and hardly two of them contain it exactly the
6. The first age of the world is from Adam to Noah; the second from Noah to Abraham; the third from Abraham to David; the fourth from David to Daniel; the fifth to John the Baptist; the sixth from John to the judgment, when our Lord Jesus Christ will come to judge the living and the dead, and the world by fire.

     The first Julius.
     The second Claudius.
     The third Severus.
     The fourth Carinus.
     The fifth Constantius.
     The sixth Maximus.
     The seventh Maximianus.
     The eighth another Severus Aequantius.
     The ninth Constantius.*
     * This list of the Roman emperors who visited Britain, is
     omitted in many of the MSS.
Here beginneth the history of the Britons, edited by Mark the anchorite, a holy bishop of that people.
7. The island of Britain derives its name from Brutus, a Roman consul. Taken from the south-west point it inclines a little towards the west, and to its northern extremity measures eight hundred miles, and is in breadth two hundred. It contains thirty three cities,(1) viz.

     1. Cair ebrauc (York).
     2. Cair ceint (Canterbury).
     3. Cair gurcoc (Anglesey?).
     4. Cair guorthegern (2)
     5. Cair custeint (Carnarvon).
     6. Cair guoranegon (Worcester).
     7. Cair segeint (Silchester).
     8. Cair guin truis (Norwich, or Winwick).
     9. Cair merdin (Caermarthen).
     10. Cair peris (Porchester).
     11. Cair lion (Caerleon-upon-Usk).
     12. Cair mencipit (Verulam).
     13. Cair caratauc (Catterick).
     14. Cair ceri (Cirencester).
     15. Cair glout (Gloucester).
     16. Cair luillid (Carlisle).
     17. Cair grant (Grantchester, now Cambridge).
     18. Cair daun (Doncaster), or Cair dauri (Dorchester).
     19. Cair britoc (Bristol).
     20. Cair meguaid (Meivod).
     21. Cair mauiguid (Manchester).
     22. Cair ligion (Chester).
     23. Cair guent (Winchester, or Caerwent, in Monmouthshire).
     24. Cair collon (Colchester, or St. Colon, Cornwall).
     25. Cair londein (London).
     26. Cair guorcon (Worren, or Woran, in Pembrokeshire).
     27. Cair lerion (Leicester).
     28. Cair draithou (Drayton).
     29. Cair pensavelcoit (Pevensey, in Sussex).
     30. Cairtelm (Teyn-Grace, in Devonshire).
     31. Cair Urnahc (Wroxeter, in Shropshire).
     32. Cair colemion (Camelet, in Somersetshire).
     33. Cair loit coit (Lincoln).
     (1) V.R. Twenty-eight, twenty-one.
     (2) Site unknown.

These are the names of the ancient cities of the island of Britain. It has also a vast many promontories, and castles innumerable, built of brick and stone. Its inhabitants consist of four different people; the Scots, the Picts, the Saxons and the ancient Britons.

8. Three considerable islands belong to it; one, on the south, opposite the Armorican shore, called Wight;* another between Ireland and Britain, called Eubonia or Man; and another directly north, beyond the Picts, named Orkney; and hence it was anciently a proverbial expression, in reference to its kings and rulers, "He reigned over Britain and its three islands."
     * Inis-gueith, or Gueith.

6. It is fertilized by several rivers, which traverse it in all directions, to the east and west, to the south and north; but there are two pre-eminently distinguished among the rest, the Thames and the Severn, which formerly, like the two arms of Britain, bore the ships employed in the conveyance of riches acquired by commerce. The Britons were once very populous, and exercised extensive dominion from sea to sea.

10.* Respecting the period when this island became inhabited subsequently to the flood, I have seen two distinct relations. According to the annals of the Roman history, the Britons deduce their origin both from the Greeks and Romans. On the side of the mother, from Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, king of Italy, and of the race of Silvanus, the son of Inachus, the son of Dardanus; who was the son of Saturn, king of the Greeks, and who, having possessed himself of a part of Asia, built the city of Troy. Dardanus was the father of Troius, who was the father of Priam and Anchises; Anchises was the father of Aeneas, who was the father of Ascanius and Silvius; and this Silvius was the son of Aeneas and Lavinia, the daughter of the king of Italy. From the sons of Aeneas and Lavinia descended Romulus and Remus, who were the sons of the holy queen Rhea, and the founders of Rome. Brutus was consul when he conquered Spain, and reduced that country to a Roman province. He afterwards subdued the island of Britain, whose inhabitants were the descendants of the Romans, from Silvius Posthumus. He was called Posthumus because he was born after the death of Aeneas his father; and his mother Lavinia concealed herself during her pregnancy; he was called Silvius, because he was born in a wood. Hence the Roman kings were called Silvan, and the Britons from Brutus, and rose from the family of Brutus.
     * The whole of this, as far as the end of the paragraph, is
     omitted in several MSS.

Aeneas, after the Trojan war, arrived with his son in Italy; and Having vanquished Turnus, married Lavinia, the daughter of king Latinus, who was the son of Faunus, the son of Picus, the son of Saturn. After the death of Latinus, Aeneas obtained the kingdom Of the Romans, and Lavinia brought forth a son, who was named Silvius. Ascanius founded Alba, and afterwards married. And Lavinia bore to Aeneas a son, named Silvius; but Ascanius (1) married a wife, who conceived and became pregnant. And Aeneas, having been informed that his daughter-in-law was pregnant, ordered his son to send his magician to examine his wife, whether the child conceived were male or female. The magician came and examined the wife and pronounced it to be a son, who should become the most valiant among the Italians, and the most beloved of all men. (2) In consequence of this prediction, the magician was put to death by Ascanius; but it happened that the mother of the child dying at its birth, he was named Brutus; ad after a certain interval, agreeably to what the magician had foretold, whilst he was playing with some others he shot his father with an arrow, not intentionally but by accident. (3) He was, for this cause, expelled from Italy, and came to the islands of the Tyrrhene sea, when he was exiled on account of the death of Turnus, slain by Aeneas. He then went among the Gauls, and built the city of the Turones, called Turnis. (4) At length he came to this island named from him Britannia, dwelt there, and filled it with his own descendants, and it has been inhabited from that time to the present period.
     (1) Other MSS. Silvius.

     (2) V.R. Who should slay his father and mother, and be hated
     by all mankind.

     (3) V.R. He displayed such superiority among his play-
     fellows, that they seemed to consider him as their chief.

     (4) Tours.
11. Aeneas reigned over the Latins three years; Ascanius thirty three years; after whom Silvius reigned twelve years, and Posthumus thirty-nine * years: the latter, from whom the kings of Alba are called Silvan, was brother to Brutus, who governed Britain at the time Eli the high-priest judged Israel, and when the ark of the covenant was taken by a foreign people. But Posthumus his brother reigned among the Latins. * V.R. Thirty-seven.
12. After an interval of not less than eight hundred years, came the Picts, and occupied the Orkney Islands: whence they laid waste many regions, and seized those on the left hand side of Britain, where they still remain, keeping possession of a third part of Britain to this day. *
     * See Bede's Eccles. Hist.

13. Long after this, the Scots arrived in Ireland from Spain. The first that came was Partholomus,(1) with a thousand men and women; these increased to four thousand; but a mortality coming suddenly upon them, they all perished in one week. The second was Nimech, the son of...,(2) who, according to report, after having been at sea a year and a half, and having his ships shattered, arrived at a port in Ireland, and continuing there several years, returned at length with his followers to Spain. After these came three sons of a Spanish soldier with thirty ships, each of which contained thirty wives; and having remained there during the space of a year, there appeared to them, in the middle of the sea, a tower of glass, the summit of which seemed covered with men, to whom they often spoke, but received no answer. At length they determined to besiege the tower; and after a year's preparation, advanced towards it, with the whole number of their ships, and all the women, one ship only excepted, which had been wrecked, and in which were thirty men, and as many women; but when all had disembarked on the shore which surrounded the tower, the sea opened and swallowed them up. Ireland, however, was peopled, to the present period, from the family remaining in the vessel which was wrecked. Afterwards, other came from Spain, and possessed themselves of various parts of Britain.
     (1) V.R. Partholomaeus, or Bartholomaeus.

     (2) A blank is here in the MS.  Agnomen is found in some of
     the others.
14. Last of all came one Hoctor,(1) who continued there, and whose descendants remain there to this day. Istoreth, the son of Istorinus, with his followers, held Dalrieta; Buile had the island Eubonia, and other adjacent places. The sons of Liethali(2) obtained the country of the dimetae, where is a city called Menavia,(3) and the province Guiher and Cetgueli, (4) which they held till they were expelled from every part of Britain, by Cunedda and his sons.
     (1) V.R. Damhoctor, Clamhoctor, and Elamhoctor.

     (2) V.R. Liethan, Bethan, Vethan.

     (3) St. David's.

     (4) Guiher, probably the Welsh district Gower.  Cetgueli is
     Caer Kidwelly, in Carmarthenshire.
15. According to the most learned among the Scots, if any one desires to learn what I am now going to state, Ireland was a desert, and uninhabited, when the children of Israel crossed the Red Sea, in which, as we read in the Book of the Law, the Egyptians who followed them were drowned. At that period, there lived among this people, with a numerous family, a Scythian of noble birth, who had been banished from his country and did not go to pursue the people of God. The Egyptians who were left, seeing the destruction of the great men of their nation, and fearing lest he should possess himself of their territory, took counsel together, and expelled him. Thus reduced, he wandered forty-two years in Africa, and arrived, with his family, at the altars of the Philistines, by the Lake of Osiers. Then passing between Rusicada and the hilly country of Syria, they travelled by the river Malva through Mauritania as far as the Pillars of Hercules; and crossing the Tyrrhene Sea, landed in Spain, where they continued many years, having greatly increased and multiplied. Thence, a thousand and two years after the Egyptians were lost in the Red Sea, they passed into Ireland, and the district of Dalrieta.* At that period, Brutus, who first exercised the consular office, reigned over the Romans; and the state, which before was governed by regal power, was afterwards ruled, during four hundred and forty-seven years, by consuls, tribunes of the people, and dictators.
     * North-western part of Antrim in Ulster.
The Britons came to Britain in the third age of the world; and in the fourth, the Scots took possession of Ireland.
The Britons who, suspecting no hostilities, were unprovided with the means of defence, were unanimously and incessantly attacked, both by the Scots from the west, and by the Picts from the north. A long interval after this, the Romans obtained the empire of the world.
16. From the first arrival of the Saxons into Britain, to the fourth year of king Mermenus, are computed four hundred and twenty eight years; from the nativity of our Lord to the coming of St. Patrick among the Scots, four hundred and five years; from the death of St. Patrick to that of St. Bridget, forty years; and from the birth of Columeille(1) to the death of St Bridget four years.(2)
     (1) V.R. Columba.

     (2) Some MSS. add, the beginning of the calculation is 23
     cycles of 19 years from the incarnation of our Lord to the
     arrival of St. Patrick in Ireland, and they make 438 years.
     And from the arrival of St. Patrick to the cycle of 19 years
     in which we live are 22 cycles, which make 421 years.
17. I have learned another account of this Brutus from the ancient books of our ancestors.* After the deluge, the three sons of Noah severally occupied three different parts of the earth: Shem extended his borders into Asia, Ham into Africa, and Japheth in Europe.
     * This proves the tradition of Brutus to be older than
     Geoffrey or Tyssilio, unless these notices of Brutus have
     been interpolated in the original work of Nennius.
The first man that dwelt in Europe was Alanus, with his three sons, Hisicion, Armenon, and Neugio. Hisicion had four sons, Francus, Romanus, Alamanus, and Brutus. Armenon had five sons, Gothus, Valagothus, Cibidus, Burgundus, and Longobardus. Neugio had three sons, Vandalus, Saxo, and Boganus. From Hisicion arose four nations—the Franks, the Latins, the Germans, and Britons: from Armenon, the Gothi, Balagothi, Cibidi, Burgundi, and Longobardi: from Neugio, the Bogari, Vandali, Saxones, and Tarinegi. The whole of Europe was subdivided into these tribes.
Alanus is said to have been the son of Fethuir;* Fethuir, the son of Ogomuin, who was the son of Thoi; Thoi was the son of Boibus, Boibus of Semion, Semion of Mair, Mair of Ecthactus, Ecthactus of Aurthack, Aurthack of Ethec, Ethec of Ooth, Ooth of Aber, Aber of Ra, Ra of Esraa, Esraa of Hisrau, Hisrau of Bath, Bath of Jobath, Jobath of Joham, Joham of Japheth, Japheth of Noah, Noah of Lamech, Lamech of Mathusalem, Mathusalem of Enoch, Enoch of Jared, Jared of Malalehel, Malalehel of Cainan, Cainan of Enos, Enos of Seth, Seth of Adam, and Adam was formed by the living God. We have obtained this information respecting the original inhabitants of Britain from ancient tradition.
     * This genealogy is different in almost all the MSS.
18. The Britons were thus called from Brutus: Brutus was the son of Hisicion, Hisicion was the son of Alanus, Alanus was the son of Rhea Silvia, Fhea Silvia was the daughter of Numa Pompilius, Numa was the son of Ascanius, Ascanius of Eneas, Eneas of Anchises, Anchises of Troius, Troius of Dardanus, Dardanus of Flisa, Flisa of Juuin, Juuin of Japheth; but Japheth had seven sons; from the first named Gomer, descended the Galli; from the second, Magog, the Scythi and Gothi; from the third, Madian, the Medi; from the fourth, Juuan, the Greeks; from the fifth, Tubal, arose the Hebrei, Hispani, and Itali; from the sixth, Mosoch, sprung the Cappadoces; and from the seventh, named Tiras, descended the Thraces: these are the sons of Japheth, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech.
19.* The Romans, having obtained the dominion of the world, sent legates or deputies to the Britons to demand of them hostages and tribute, which they received from all other countries and islands; but they, fierce, disdainful, and haughty, treated the legation with contempt.
     * Some MSS. add, I will now return to the point from which I
     made this digression.
Then Julius Caesar, the first who had acquired absolute power at Rome, highly incensed against the Britons, sailed with sixty vessels to the mouth of the Thames, where they suffered shipwreck whilst he fought against Dolobellus, (the proconsul of the British king, who was called Belinus, and who was the son of Minocannus who governed all the islands of the Tyrrhene Sea), and thus Julius Caesar returned home without victory, having had his soldiers Slain, and his ships shattered.
20. But after three years he again appeared with a large army, and three hundred ships, at the mouth of the Thames, where he renewed hostilities. In this attempt many of his soldiers and horses were killed; for the same consul had placed iron pikes in the shallow part of the river, and this having been effected with so much skill and secrecy as to escape the notice of the Roman soldiers, did them considerable injury; thus Caesar was once more compelled to return without peace or victory. The Romans were, therefore, a third time sent against the Britons; and under the command of Julius, defeated them near a place called Trinovantum (London), forty-seven years before the birth of Christ, and five thousand two hundred and twelve years from the creation.
Julius was the first exercising supreme power over the Romans who invaded Britain: in honour of him the Romans decreed the fifth month to be called after his name. He was assassinated in the Curia, in the ides of March, and Octavius Augustus succeeded to the empire of the world. He was the only emperor who received tribute from the Britons, according to the following verse of Virgil: "Purpurea intexti tollunt aulaea Britanni."
21. The second after him, who came into Britain, was the emperor Claudius, who reigned forty-seven years after the birth of Christ. He carried with him war and devastation; and, though not without loss of men, he at length conquered Britain. He next sailed to the Orkneys, which he likewise conquered, and afterwards rendered tributary. No tribute was in his time received from the Britons; but it was paid to British emperors. He reigned thirteen years and eight months. His monument is to be seen at Moguntia (among the Lombards), where he died in his way to Rome.
22. After the birth of Christ, one hundred and sixty-seven years, king Lucius, with all the chiefs of the British people, received baptism, in consequence of a legation sent by the Roman emperors and pope Evaristus.*
     * V.R. Eucharistus.  A marginal note in the Arundel MS.
     adds, "He is wrong, because the first year of Evaristus was
     A.D. 79, whereas the first year of Eleutherius, whom he
     ought to have named, was A.D. 161."  Usher says, that in one
     MS. of Nennius he found the name of Eleutherius.
23. Severus was the third emperor who passed the sea to Britain, where, to protect the provinces recovered from barbaric incursions, he ordered a wall and a rampart to be made between the Britons, the Scots, and the Picts, extending across the island from sea to sea, in length one hundred and thirty-three miles: and it is called in the British language Gwal.* Moreover, he ordered it to be made between the Britons, and the Picts and Scots; for the Scots from the west, and the Picts from the north, unanimously made war against the Britons; but were at peace among themselves. Not long after Severus dies in Britain.
     *Or, the Wall.  One MS. here adds, "The above-mentioned
     Severus constructed it of rude workmanship in length 132
     miles; i.e. from Penguaul, which village is called in
     Scottish Cenail, in English Peneltun, to the mouth of the
     river Cluth and Cairpentaloch, where this wall terminates;
     but it was of no avail.  The emperor Carausius afterwards
     rebuilt it, and fortified it with seven castles between the
     two mouths: he built also a round house of polished stones
     on the banks of the river Carun (Carron): he likewise
     erected a triumphal arch, on which he inscribed his own name
     in memory of his victory."
24. The fourth was the emperor and tyrant, Carausius, who, incensed at the murder of Severus, passed into Britain, and attended by the leaders of the Roman people, severely avenged upon the chiefs and rulers of the Britons, the cause of Severus.*
     * This passage is corrupt, the meaning is briefly given in
     the translation.
25. The fifth was Constantius the father of Constantine the Great. He died in Britain; his sepulchre, as it appears by the inscription on his tomb, is still seen near the city named Cair segont (near Carnarvon). Upon the pavement of the above-mentioned city he sowed three seeds of gold, silver and brass, that no poor person might ever be found in it. It is also called Minmanton.*
     * V.R. Mirmantum, Mirmantun, Minmanto, Minimantone.  The
     Segontium of Antoninus, situated on a small river named
     Seiont, near Carnarvon.
26. Maximianus(1) was the sixth emperor that ruled in Britain. It was in his time that consuls(2) began, and that the appellation of Caesar was discontinued: at this period also, St. Martin became celebrated for his virtues and miracles, and held a conversation with him.
     (1) This is an inaccuracy of Nennius; Maximus and Maximianus
     were one and the same person; or rather no such person as
     Maximianus ever reigned in Britain. (2) Geoffrey of Monmouth
     gives the title of consul to several British generals who
     lived after this time.  It is not unlikely that the town,
     name, and dignity, still lingered in the provinces after the
     Romans were gone, particularly as the cities of Britain
     maintained for a time a species of independence.
27. The seventh emperor was Maximus. He withdrew from Britain with all his military force, slew Gratian, the king of the Romans, and obtained the sovereignty of all Europe. Unwilling to send back his warlike companions to their wives, children, and possessions in Britain, he conferred upon them numerous districts from the lake on the summit of Mons Jovis, to the city called Cant Guic, and to the western Tumulus, that is, to Cruc Occident.* These are the Armoric Britons, and they remain there to the present day. In consequence of their absence, Britain being overcome by foreign nations, the lawful heirs were cast out, till God interposed with his assistance. We are informed by the tradition of our ancestors that seven emperors went into Britain, though the Romans affirm there were nine.
     * This district, in modern language, extended from the great
     St. Bernard in Piedmont to Cantavic in Picardy, and from
     Picardy to the western coast of France.
28. Thus, aggreeably to the account given by the Britons, the Romans governed them four hundred and nine years.
After this, the Britons despised the authority of the Romans, equally refusing to pay them tribute, or to receive their kings; nor durst the Romans any longer attempt the government of a country, the natives of which massacred their deputies.
29. We must now return to the tyrant Maximus. Gratian, with his brother Valentinian, reigned seven years. Ambrose, bishop of Milan, was then eminent for his skill in the dogmata of the Catholics. Valentinianus and Theodosius reigned eight years. At that time a synod was held at Constantinople, attended by three hundred and fifty of the fathers, and in which all heresies were condemned. Jerome, the presbyter of Bethlehem, was then universally celebrated. Whilst Gratian exercised supreme dominion over the world, Maximus, in a sedition of the soldiers, was saluted emperor in Britain, and soon after crossed the sea to Gaul. At Paris, by the treachery of Mellobaudes, his master of the horse, Gratian was defeated and fleeing to Lyons, was taken and put to death; Maximus afterwards associated his son victor in the government.
Martin, distinguished for his great virtues, was at this period bishop of Tours. After a considerable space of time, Maximus was divested of royal power by the consuls Valentinianus and Theodosius, and sentenced to be beheaded at the third mile-stone from Aquileia: in the same year also his son Victor was killed in Gaul by Arbogastes, five thousand six hundred and ninety years from the creation of the world.
30. Thrice were the Roman deputies put to death by the Britons, and yet these, when harassed by the incursions of the barbarous nations, viz. Of the Scots and Picts, earnestly solicited the aid of the Romans. To give effect to their entreaties, ambassadors were sent, who made their entrance with impressions of deep sorrow, having their heads covered with dust, and carrying rich presents, to expiate the murder of the deputies. They were favourably received by the consuls, and swore submission to the Roman yoke, with whatever severity it might be imposed.
The Romans, therefore, came with a powerful army to the assistance of the Britons; and having appointed over them a ruler, and settled the government, returned to Rome: and this took place alternately during the space of three hundred and forty-eight years. The Britons, however, from the oppression of the empire, again massacred The Roman deputies, and again petitioned for succour. Once more the Romans undertook the government of the Britons, and assisted them in repelling their neighbours; and, after having exhausted the country of its gold, silver, brass, honey, and costly vestments, and having besides received rich gifts, they returned in great triumph to Rome.
31. After the above-said war between the Britons and Romans, the assassination of their rulers, and the victory of Maximus, who slew Gratian, and the termination of the Roman power in Britain, they were in alarm forty years.
Vortigern then reigned in Britain. In his time, the natives had cause of dread, not only from the inroads of the Scots and Picts, but also from the Romans, and their apprehensions of Ambrosius.*
     * These words relate evidently to some cause of dispute
     between the Romans, Ambrosius, and Vortigern.  Vortigern is
     said to have been sovereign of the Dimetae, and Ambrosius
     son to the king of the Damnonii.  The latter was half a
     Roman by descent, and naturally supported the Roman
     interest: the former was entirely a Briton, and as naturally
     seconded by the original Britons.
In the meantime, three vessels, exiled from Germany, arrived in Britain. They were commanded by Horsa and Hengist, brothers, and sons of Wihtgils. Wihtgils was the son of Witta; Witta of Wecta; Wecta of Woden; Woden of Frithowald; Frithowald of Frithuwulf; Frithuwulf of Finn; Finn of Godwulf; Godwulf of Geat, who, as they say, was the son of a god, not(1) of the omnipotent God and our Lord Jesus Christ (who before the beginning of the world, was with the Father and the Holy Spirit, co-eternal and of the same substance, and who, in compassion to human nature, disdained not to assume the form of a servant), but the offspring of one of their idols, and whom, blinded by some demon, they worshipped according to the custom of the heathen. Vortigern received them as friends, and delivered up to them the island which is in their language called Thanet, and, by the Britons, Ruym.(2) Gratianus Aequantius at that time reigned in Rome. The Saxons were received by Vortigern, four hundred and forty-seven years after the passion of Christ, and,(3) according to the tradition of our ancestors, from the period of their first arrival in Britain, to the first year of the reign of king Edmund, five hundred and forty-two years; and to that in which we now write, which is the fifth of his reign, five hundred and forty-seven years.
     (1) V.R. not the God of gods, the Amen, the Lord of Hosts,
     but one of their idols which they worshipped.

     (2) Sometimes called Ruoichin, Ruith-in, or "river island,"
     separated from the rest of Kent and the mainland of Britain
     by the estuary of the Wantsum, which, though now a small
     brook, was formerly navigable for large vessels, and in
     Bede's time was three stadia broad, and fordable only at two

     (3) The rest of this sentence is omitted in some of the MSS.
32. At that time St. Germanus, distinguished for his numerous virtues, came to preach in Britain: by his ministry many were saved; but many likewise died unconverted. Of the various miracles which God enabled him to perform, I shall here mention only a few: I shall first advert to that concerning an iniquitous and tyrannical king, named Benlli.* The holy man, informed of his wicked conduct, hastened to visit him, for the purpose of remonstrating him. When the man of God, with his attendants, arrived at the gate of the city, they were respectfully received by the keeper of it, who came out and saluted them. Him they commissioned to communicate their intention to the king, who returned a harsh answer, declaring, with an oath, that although they remained there a year, they should not enter the city. While waiting for an answer, the evening came on, and they knew not where to go. At length, came one of the king's servants, who bowing himself before the man of God, announced the words of the tyrant, inviting them, at the same time, to his own house, to which they went, and were kindly received. It happened, however, that he had no cattle, except one cow and a calf, the latter of which, urged by generous hospitality to his guests, he killed, dressed and set before them. But holy St. Germanus ordered his companions not to break a bone of the calf; and, the next morning, it was found alive uninjured, and standing by its mother.
     * King of Powys.  V.R. Benli in the district of Ial (in
     Derbyshire); in the district of Dalrieta; Belinus; Beluni;
     and Benty.
33. Early the same day, they again went to the gate of the city, to solicit audience of the wicked king; and, whilst engaged in fervent prayer they were waiting for admission, a man, covered with sweat, came out, and prostrated himself before them. Then St. Germanus, addressing him, said "Dost thou believe in the Holy Trinity?" To which the man having replied, "I do believe," he baptized, and kissed him, saying, "Go in peace; within this hour thou shalt die: the angels of God are waiting for thee in the air; with them thou shalt ascent to that God in whom thou has believed." He, overjoyed, entered the city, and being met by the prefect, was seized, bound, and conducted before the tyrant, who having passed sentence upon him, he was immediately put to death; for it was a law of this wicked king, that whoever was not at his labour before sun-rising should be beheaded in the citadel. In the meantime, St. Germanus, with his attendants, waited the whole day before the gate, without obtaining admission to the tyrant.
34. The man above-mentioned, however, remained with them. "Take care," said St. Germanus to him, "that none of your friends remain this night within these walls." Upon this he hastily entered the city, brought out his nine sons, and with them retired to the house where he had exercised such generous hospitality. Here St. Germanus ordered them to continue, fasting; and when the gates were shut, "Watch," said he, "and whatever shall happen in the citadel, turn not thither your eyes; but pray without ceasing, and invoke the protection of the true God." And, behold, early in the night, fire fell from heaven, and burned the city, together with all those who were with the tyrant, so that not one escaped; and that citadel has never been rebuilt even to this day.
35. The following day, the hospitable man who had been converted by the preaching of St. Germanus, was baptized, with his sons, and all the inhabitants of that part of the country; and St. Germanus blessed him, saying, "a king shall not be wanting of thy seed for ever." The name of this person is Catel Drunlue:* "from henceforward thou shalt be a king all the days of thy life." Thus was fulfilled the prophecy of the Psalmist: "He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, and lifteth up the needy out of the dunghill." And agreeably to the prediction of St. Germanus, from a servant he became a king: all his sons were kings, and from their offspring the whole country of Powys has been governed to this day.
     * Or Cadell Deyrnllug, prince of the Vale Royal and the
     upper part of Powys.
36. After the Saxons had continued some time in the island of Thanet, Vortigern promised to supply them with clothing and provision, on condition they would engage to fight against the enemies of his country. But the barbarians having greatly increased in number, the Britons became incapable of fulfilling their engagement; and when the Saxons, according to the promise they had received, claimed a supply of provisions and clothing, the Britons replied, "Your number is increased; your assistance is now unneccessary; you may, therefore, return home, for we can no longer support you;" and hereupon they began to devise means of breaking the peace between them.
37. But Hengist, in whom united craft and penetration, perceiving he had to act with an ignorant king, and a fluctuating people, incapable of opposing much resistance, replied to Vortigern, "We are, indeed, few in number; but, if you will give us leave, we will send to our country for an additional number of forces, with whom we will fight for you and your subjects." Vortigern assenting to this proposal, messengers were despatched to Scythia, where selecting a number of warlike troops, they returned with sixteen vessels, bringing with them the beautiful daughter of Hengist. And now the Saxon chief prepared an entertainment, to which he invited the king, his officers, and Ceretic, his interpreter, having previously enjoined his daughter to serve them so profusely with wine and ale, that they might soon become intoxicated. This plan succeeded; and Vortigern, at the instigation of the devil, and enamoured with the beauty of the damsel, demanded her, through the medium of his interpreter, of the father, promising to give for her whatever he should ask. Then Hengist, who had already consulted with the elders who attended him of the Oghgul(1) race, demanded for his daughter the province, called in English, Centland, in British, Ceint, (Kent.) This cession was made without the knowledge of the king, Guoyrancgonus,(2) who then reigned in Kent, and who experienced no inconsiderable share of grief, from seeing his kingdom thus clandestinely, fraudulently, and imprudently resigned to foreigners. Thus the maid was delivered up to the king, who slept with her, and loved her exceedingly.
     (1) V.R. Who had come with him from the island of Oghgul,
     Oehgul (or Tingle), Angul.  According to Gunn, a small
     island in the duchy of Sleswick in Denmark, now called
     Angel, of which Flensburg is the metropolis.  Hence the
     origin of the Angles.

     (2) V.R. Gnoiram cono, Goiranegono, Guiracgono.  Malmesbury,
     Gorongi; Camden, Guorong, supposed to mean governor, or
38. Hengist, after this, said to Vortigern, "I will be to you both a father and an adviser; despise not my counsels, and you shall have no reason to fear being conquered by any man or any nation whatever; for the people of my country are strong, warlike, and robust: if you approve, I will send for my son and his brother, both valiant men, who at my invitation will fight against the Scots, and you can give them the countries in the north, near the wall called Gual."(1) The incautious sovereign having assented to this, Octa and Ebusa arrived with forty ships. In these they sailed round the country of the Picts, laid waste the Orkneys, and took possession of many regions, even to the Pictish confines.(2)
     (1) Antoninus's wall.

     (2) Some MSS. add, "beyond the Frenesic, Fresicum (or
     Fresic) sea," i.e. which is between us and the Scotch.  The
     sea between Scotland and Ireland.  Camden translates it
     "beyond the Frith;" Langhorne says, "Solway Frith."
But Hengist continued, by degrees, sending for ships from his own country, so that some islands whence they came were left without inhabitants; and whilst his people were increasing in power and number, they came to the above-named province of Kent.
39. In the meantime, Vortigern, as if desirous of adding to the evils he had already occasioned, married his own daughter, by whom he had a son. When this was made known to St. Germanus, he came, with all the British clergy, to reprove him: and whilst a numerous assembly of the ecclesiastics and laity were in consultation, the weak king ordered his daughter to appear before them, and in the presence of all to present her son to St. Germanus, and declare that he was the father of the child. The immodest* woman obeyed; and St. Germanus, taking the child, said, "I will be a father to you, my son; nor will I dismiss you till a razor, scissors, and comb, are given to me, and it is allowed you to give them to your carnal father." The child obeyed St. Germanus, and going to his father Vortigern, said to him, "Thou art my father; shave and cut the hair of my head." The king blushed, and was silent; and, without replying to the child, arose in great anger, and fled from the presence of St. Germanus, execrated and condemned by the whole synod.
     (1) V.R. "Immodest" is omitted in some MSS.
40. But soon after, calling together his twelve wise men, to consult what was to be done, they said to him, "Retire to the remote boundaries of your kingdom; there build and fortify a city(1) to defend yourself, for the people you have received are treacherous; they are seeking to subdue you by stratagem, and, even during your life, to seize upon all the countries subject to your power, how much more will they attempt, after your death!" The king, pleased with this advice, departed with his wise men, and travelled through many parts of his territories, in search of a place convenient for the purpose of building a citadel. Having, to no purpose, travelled far and wide, they came at length to a province called Guenet;(2) and having surveyed the mountains of Heremus,(3) they discovered, on the summit of one of them, a situation, adapted to the construction of a citadel. Upon this, the wise men said to the king, "Build here a city: for, in this place, it will ever be secure against the barbarians." Then the king sent for artificers, carpenters, stone-masons, and collected all the materials requisite to building; but the whole of these disappeared in one night, so that nothing remained of what had been provided for the constructing of the citadel. Materials were, therefore, from all parts, procured a second and third time, and again vanished as before, leaving and rendering every effort ineffectual. Vortigern inquired of his wise men the cause of this opposition to his undertaking, and of so much useless expense of labour? They replied, "You must find a child born without a father, put him to death, and sprinkle with his blood the ground on which the citadel is to be built, or you will never accomplish your purpose."
     (1) V.R. You shall find a fortified city in which you may
     defend yourself.

     (2) V.R. Guined, Guoienet, Guenez, North Wales.

     (3) V.R. Heremi, Heriri, or Eryri, signifying eagle rocks,
     the mountains of Snowdon, in Carnarvonshire.  The spot
     alluded to is supposed to be Dinas Emrys, or the fortress of
41. In consequence of this reply, the king sent messengers throughout Britain, in search of a child born without a father. After having inquired in all the provinces, they came to the field of Aelecti,(1) in the district of Glevesing,(2) where a party of boys were playing at ball. And two of them quarrelling, one said to the other, "O boy without a father, no good will ever happen to you." Upon this, the messengers diligently inquired of the mother and the other boys, whether he had had a father? Which his mother denied, saying, "In what manner he was conceived I know not, for I have never had intercourse with any man;" and then she solemnly affirmed that he had no mortal father. The boy was, therefore, led away, and conducted before Vortigern the king.
     (1) V.R. Elleti, Electi, Gleti.  Supposed to be Bassalig in

     (2) The district between the Usk and Rumney, in
42. A meeting took place the next day for the purpose of putting him to death. Then the boy said to the king, "Why have your servants brought me hither?" "That you may be put to death," replied the king, "and that the ground on which my citadel is to stand, may be sprinkled with your blood, without which I shall be unable to build it." "Who," said the boy, "instructed you to do this?" "My wise men," answered the king. "Order them hither," returned the boy; this being complied with, he thus questioned them: "By what means was it revealed to you that this citadel could not be built, unless the spot were previously sprinkled with my blood? Speak without disguise, and declare who discovered me to you;" then turning to the king, "I will soon," said he, "unfold to you every thing; but I desire to question your wise men, and wish them to disclose to you what is hidden under this pavement:" they acknowledging their ignorance, "there is," said he, "a pool; come and dig:" they did so, and found the pool. "Now," continued he, "tell me what is in it;" but they were ashamed, and made no reply. "I," said the boy, "can discover it to you: there are two vases in the pool;" they examined and found it so: continuing his questions, "What is in the vases?" they were silent: "there is a tent in them," said the boy; "separate them, and you shall find it so;" this being done by the king's command, there was found in them a folded tent. The boy, going on with his questions, asked the wise men what was in it? But they not knowing what to reply, "There are," said he, "two serpents, one white and the other red; unfold the tent;" they obeyed, and two sleeping serpents were discovered; "consider attentively," said the boy, "what they are doing." The serpents began to struggle with each other; and the white one, raising himself up, threw down the other into the middle of the tent, and sometimes drove him to the edge of it; and this was repeated thrice. At length the red one, apparently the weaker of the two, recovering his strength, expelled the white one from the tent; and the latter being pursued through the pool by the red one, disappeared. Then the boy, asking the wise men what was signified by this wonderful omen, and they expressing their ignorance, he said to the king, "I will now unfold to you the meaning of this mystery. The pool is the emblem of this world, and the tent that of your kingdom: the two serpents are two dragons; the red serpent is your dragon, but the white serpent is the dragon of the people who occupy several provinces and districts of Britain, even almost from sea to sea: at length, however, our people shall rise and drive away the Saxon race from beyond the sea, whence they originally came; but do you depart from this place, where you are not permitted to erect a citadel; I, to whom fate has allotted this mansion, shall remain here; whilst to you it is incumbent to seek other provinces, where you may build a fortress." "What is your name?" asked the king; "I am called Ambrose (in British Embresguletic)," returned the boy; and in answer to the king's question, "What is your origin?" he replied, "A Roman consul was my father."
Then the king assigned him that city, with all the western Provinces of Britain; and departing with his wise men to the sinistral district, he arrived in the region named Gueneri, where he built a city which, according to his name, was called Cair Guorthegirn.*
     * An ancient scholiast adds, "He then built Guasmoric, near
     Lugubalia (Carlisle), a city which in English is called
     Palmecaster." Some difference of opinion exists among
     antiquaries respecting the site of vortigern's castle or
     city.  Usher places it at Gwent, Monmouthshire, which name,
     he ways, was taken from Caer-Went, near Chepstow.  This
     appears to agree with Geoffrey's account, {illegible} See
     Usher's Britan. Eccles. cap. v. p.23.  According to others,
     supposed to be the city from the ruins of which arose the
     castle of Gurthrenion, in Radnorshire, Camden's Britannia,
     p.479.  Whitaker, however, says that Cair Guorthegirn was
     the Maridunum of the Romans, and the present Caermarthen.
     (Hist. Of Manchester, book ii. c. 1.)  See also Nennius,
43. At length Vortimer, the son of Vortigern, valiantly fought against Hengist, Horsa, and his people; drove them to the isle of Thanet, and thrice enclosed them within it, and beset them on the Western side.
The Saxons now despatched deputies to Germany to solicit large reinforcements, and an additional number of ships: having obtained these, they fought against the kings and princes of Britain, and sometimes extended their boundaries by victory, and sometimes were conquered and driven back.
44. Four times did Vortimer valorously encounter the enemy;(1) the first has been mentioned, the second was upon the river Darent, the third at the Ford, in their language called Epsford, though in ours Set thirgabail,(2) there Horsa fell, and Catigern, the son of Vortigern; the fourth battle he fought was near the stone(3) on the shore of the Gallic sea, where the Saxons being defeated, fled to their ships.
     (1) Some MSS. here add, "This Vortimer, the son of
     Vortigern, in a synod held at Guartherniaun, after the
     wicked king, on account of the incest committed with his
     daughter, fled from the face of Germanus and the British
     clergy, would not consent to his father's wickedness; but
     returning to St. Germanus, and falling down at his feet, he
     sued for pardon; and in atonement for the calumny brought
     upon Germanus by his father and sister, gave him the land,
     in which the forementioned bishop had endured such abuse, to
     be his for ever. Whence, in memory of St. Germanus, it
     received the name Guarenniaun (Guartherniaun, Gurthrenion,
     Gwarth Ennian) which signifies, a calumny justly retorted,
     since, when he thought to reproach the bishop, he covered
     himself with reproach."

     (2) According to Langhorne, Epsford was afterwards called,
     in the British tongue, Saessenaeg habail, or 'the slaughter
     of the Saxons.'

     (3) V.R. "The Stone of Titulus", thought to be Stone in Kent,
     or Larger-stone in Suffolk.
After a short interval Vortimer died; before his decease, anxious for the future prosperity of his country, he charged his friends to inter his body at the entrance of the Saxon port, viz. upon the rock where the Saxons first landed; "for though," said he, "they may inhabit other parts of Britain, yet if you follow my commands, they will never remain in this island." They imprudently disobeyed this last injunction, and neglected to bury him where he had appointed.*
     * Rapin says he was buried at Lincoln; Geoffrey, at London.
45. After this the barbarians became firmly incorporated, and were assisted by foreign pagans; for Vortigern was their friend, on account of the daughter* of Hengist, whom he so much loved, that no one durst fight against him-in the meantime they soothed the imprudent king, and whilst practising every appearance of fondness, were plotting with his enemies. And let him that reads understand, that the Saxons were victorious, and ruled Britain, not from their superior prowess, but on account of the great sins of the Britons: God so permitting it.
For what wise man will resist the wholesome counsel of God? The Almighty is the King of kings, and the Lord of lords, ruling and judging every one, according to his own pleasure.
After the death of Vortimer, Hengist being strengthened by new accessions, collected his ships, and calling his leaders together, consulted by what stratagem they might overcome Vortigern and his army; with insidious intention they sent messengers to the king, with offers of peace and perpetual friendship; unsuspicious of treachery, the monarch, after advising with his elders, accepted the proposals.
     * V.R. Of his wife, and no one was able manfully to drive
     them off because they had occupied Britain not from their
     own valour, but by God's permission.
46. Hengist, under pretence of ratifying the treaty, prepared an entertainment, to which he invited the king, the nobles, and military officers, in number about three hundred; speciously concealing his wicked intention, he ordered three hundred Saxons to conceal each a knife under his feet, and to mix with the Britons; "and when," said he, "they are sufficiently inebriated, &c. cry out, 'Nimed eure Saxes,' then let each draw his knife, and kill his man; but spare the king, on account of his marriage with my daughter, for it is better that he should be ransomed than killed."*
     * The VV. RR. Of this section are too numerous to be
The king with his company, appeared at the feast; and mixing with the Saxons, who, whilst they spoke peace with their tongues, cherished treachery in their hearts, each man was placed next to his enemy.
After they had eaten and drunk, and were much intoxicated, Hengist suddenly vociferated, "Nimed eure Saxes!" and instantly his adherents drew their knives, and rushing upon the Britons, each slew him that sat next to him, and there was slain three hundred of the nobles of Vortigern. The king being a captive, purchased his redemption, by delivering up the three provinces of East, South, and Middle Sex, besides other districts at the option of his betrayers.
47. St. Germanus admonished Vortigern to turn to the true God, and abstain from all unlawful intercourse with his daughter; but the unhappy wretch fled for refuge to the province Guorthegirnaim,* so called from his own name, where he concealed himself with his wives: but St. Germanus followed him with all the British clergy, and upon a rock prayed for his sins during forty days and forty nights.
     * A district of Radnorshire, forming the present hundred of
The Blessed man was unanimously chosen commander against the Saxons. And then, not by the clang of trumpets, but by praying, singing hallelujah, and by the cries of the army to God, the enemies were routed, and driven even to the sea.*
     *V.R. This paragraph is omitted in the MSS.
Again Vortigern ignominiously flew from St. Germanus to the kingdom of the Dimetae, where, on the river Towy,* he built a castle, which he named Cair Guothergirn. The saint, as usual, followed him there, and with his clergy fasted and prayed to the Lord three days, and as many nights. On the third night, at the third hour, fire fell suddenly from heaven, and totally burned the castle. Vortigern, the daughter of Hengist, his other wives, and all the inhabitants, both men and women, miserably perished: such was the end of this unhappy king, as we find written in the life of St. Germanus.
     *The Tobias of Ptolemy
47. Others assure us, that being hated by all the people of Britain, for having received the Saxons, and being publicly charged by St. Germanus and the clergy in the sight of God, he betook himself to flight; and, that deserted and a wanderer, he sought a place of refuge, till broken hearted, he made an ignominious end.
Some accounts state, that the earth opened and swallowed him up, on the night his castle was burned; as no remains were discovered the following morning, either of him, or of those who were burned with him.
He had three sons: the eldest was Vortimer, who, as we have seen, fought four times against the Saxons, and put them to flight; the second Categirn, who was slain in the same battle with Horsa; the third was Pascent, who reigned in the two provinces Builth and Guorthegirnaim,(1) after the death of his father. These were granted him by Ambrosius, who was the great king among the kings of Britain. The fourth was Faustus, born of an incestuous marriage with his daughter, who was brought up and educated by St. Germanus. He built a large monastery on the banks of the river Renis, called after his name, and which remains to the present period.(2)
     (1) In the northern part of the present counties of Radnor
     and Brecknock.

     (2) V.R. The MSS. add, 'and he had one daughter, who was the
     mother of St. Faustus.'
49. This is the genealogy of Vortigern, which goes back to Fernvail,(1) who reigned in the kingdom of Guorthegirnaim,(2) and was the son of Teudor; Teudor was the son of Pascent; Pascent of Guoidcant; Guoidcant of Moriud; Moriud of Eltat; Eltat of Eldoc; Eldoc of Paul; Paul of Meuprit; Meuprit of Braciat; Braciat of Pascent; Pascent of Guorthegirn, Guorthegirn of Guortheneu; Guortheneu of Guitaul; Guitaul of Guitolion; Guitolion of Gloui. Bonus, Paul, Mauron, Guotelin, were four brothers, who built Gloiuda, a great city upon the banks of the river Severn, and in Birtish is called Cair Gloui, in Saxon, Gloucester. Enough has been said of Vortigern.
     (1) Fernvail, or Farinmail, appears to have been king of
     Gwent or Monmouth.

     (2) V.R. 'Two provinces, Builth and Guorthegirnaim.'
50. St. Germanus, after his death, returned into his own country. *At that time, the Saxons greatly increased in Britain, both in strength and numbers. And Octa, after the death of his father Hengist, came from the sinistral part of the island to the kingdom of Kent, and from him have proceeded all the kings of that province, to the present period.
     * V.R. All this to the word 'Amen,' in other MSS. is placed
     after the legend of St. Patrick.
Then it was, that the magnanimous Arthur, with all the kings and military force of Britain, fought against the Saxons. And though there were many more noble than himself, yet he was twelve times chosen their commander, and was as often conqueror. The first battle in which he was engaged, was at the mouth of the river Gleni.(1) The second, third, fourth, and fifth, were on another river, by the Britons called Duglas,(2) in the region Linuis. The sixth, on the river Bassas.(3) The seventh in the wood Celidon, which the Britons call Cat Coit Celidon.(4) The eighth was near Gurnion castle,(5) where Arthur bore the image of the Holy Virgin,(6) mother of God, upon his shoulders, and through the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the holy Mary, put the Saxons to flight, and pursued them the whole day with great slaughter.(7) The ninth was at the City of Legion,(8) which is called Cair Lion. The tenth was on the banks of the river Trat Treuroit.(9) The eleventh was on the mountain Breguoin, which we call Cat Bregion.(10) The twelfth was a most severe contest, when Arthur penetrated to the hill of Badon.(11) In this engagement, nine hundred and forty fell by his hand alone, no one but the Lord affording him assistance. In all these engagements the Britons were successful. For no strength can avail against the will of the Almighty.
     (1) Supposed by some to be the Glem, in Lincolnshire; but
     most probably the Glen, in the northern part of

     (2) Or Dubglas.  The little river Dunglas, which formed the
     southern boundary of Lothian.  Whitaker says, the river
     Duglas, in Lancashire, near Wigan.

     (3) Not a river, but an isolated rock in the Frith of Forth,
     near the town of North Berwick, called "The Bass."  Some
     think it is the river Lusas, in Hampshire.

     (4) The Caledonian forest; or the forest of Englewood,
     extending from Penrith to Carlisle.

     (5) Variously supposed to be in Cornwall, or Binchester in
     Durham, but most probably the Roman station of Garionenum,
     near Yarmouth, in Norfolk.

     (6) V.R. The image of the cross of Christ, and of the
     perpetual virgin St. Mary.

     (7) V.R. For Arthur proceeded to Jerusalem, and there made a
     cross to the size of the Saviour's cross, and there it was
     consecrated, and for three successive days he fasted,
     watched, and prayed, before the Lord's cross, that the Lord
     would give him the victory, by this sign, over the heathen;
     which also took place, and he took with him the image of St.
     Mary, the fragments of which are still preserved in great
     veneration at Wedale, in English Wodale, in Latin Vallis-
     doloris.  Wodale is a village in the province of Lodonesia,
     but now of the jurisdiction of the bishop of St. Andrew's,
     of Scotland, six miles on the west of that heretofore noble
     and eminent monastery of Meilros.

     (8) Exeter.

     (9) Or Ribroit, the Brue, in Somersetshire; or the Ribble,
     in Lancashire.

     (10) Or Agned Cathregonion, Cadbury, in Somersetshire; or

     (11) Bath.
The more the Saxons were vanquished, the more they sought for new supplies of Saxons from Germany; so that kings, commanders, and military bands were invited over from almost every province. And this practice they continued till the reign of Ida, who was the son of Eoppa, he, of the Saxon race, was the first king in Bernicia, and in Cair Ebrauc (York).
When Gratian Aequantius was consul at rome, because then the whole world was governed by the Roman consuls, the Saxons were received by Vortigern in the year of our Lord four hundred and forty-seven, and to the year in which we now write, five hundred and forty-seven. And whosoever shall read herein may receive instruction, the Lord Jesus Christ affording assistance, who, co-eternal with the Father and the Holy Ghost, lives and reigns for ever and ever. Amen.
In those days Saint Patrick was captive among the Scots. His master's name was Milcho, to whom he was a swineherd for seven years. When he had attained the age of seventeen he gave him his liberty. By the divine impulse, he applied himself to reading of the Scriptures, and afterwards went to Rome; where, replenished with the Holy Spirit, he continued a great while, studying the sacred mysteries of those writings. During his continuance there, Palladius, the first bishop, was sent by pope Celestine to convert the Scots (the Irish). But tempests and signs from God prevented his landing, for no one can arrive in any country, except it be allowed from above; altering therefore his course from Ireland, he came to Britain and died in the land of the Picts.*
     * At Fordun, in the district of Mearns, in Scotland-Usher.
51. The death of Palladius being known, the Roman patricians, Theodosius and Valentinian, then reigning, pope Celestine sent Patrick to convert the Scots to the faith of the Holy Trinity; Victor, the angel of God, accompanying, admonishing, and assisting him, and also the bishop Germanus.
Germanus then sent the ancient Segerus with him as a venerable and praiseworthy bishop, to king Amatheus,(1) who lived near, and who had prescience of what was to happen; he was consecrated bishop in the reign of that king by the holy pontiff,(2) assuming the name of Patrick, having hitherto been known by that of Maun; Auxilius, Isserninus, and other brothers were ordained with him to inferior degrees.
     (1) V.R. Germanus "sent the elder Segerus with him to a
     wonderful man, the holy bishop Amathearex."  Another MS.
     "Sent the elder Segerus, a bishop, with him to Amatheorex."

     (2) V.R. "Received the episcopal degree from the holy bishop
     Amatheorex."  Another MS. "Received the episcopal degree
     from Matheorex and the holy bishop."
52. Having distributed benedictions, and perfected all in the name of the Holy Trinity, he embarked on the sea which is between the Gauls and the Britons; and after a quick passage arrived in Britain, where he preached for some time. Every necessary preparation being made, and the angel giving him warning, he came to the Irish Sea. And having filled the ship with foreign gifts and spiritual treasures, by the permission of God he arrived in Ireland, where he baptized and preached.
53. From the beginning of the world, to the fifth year of king Logiore, when the Irish were baptized, and faith in the unity of the individual Trinity was published to them, are five thousand three hundred and thirty years.
54. Saint Patrick taught the gospel in foreign nations for the space of forty years. Endued with apostolical powers, he gave sight to the blind, cleansed the lepers, gave hearing to the deaf, cast out devils, raised nine from the dead, redeemed many captives of both sexes at his own charge, and set them free in the name of the Holy Trinity. He taught the servants of God, and he wrote three hundred and sixty-five canonical and other books relating to the catholic faith. He founded as many churches, and consecrated the same number of bishops, strengthening them with the Holy Ghost. He ordained three thousand presbyters; and converted and baptized twelve thousand persons in the province of Connaught. And, in one day baptized seven kings, who were the seven sons of Amalgaid.(1) He continued fasting forty days and nights, on the summit of the mountain Eli, that is Cruachan-Aichle;(2) and preferred three petitions to God for the Irish, that had embraced the faith. The Scots say, the first was, that he would receive every repenting sinner, even at the latest extremity of life; the second, that they should never be exterminated by barbarians; and the third, that as Ireland(3) will be overflowed with water, seven years before the coming of our Lord to judge the quick and the dead, the crimes of the people might be washed away through his intercession, and their souls purified at the last day. He gave the people his benediction from the upper part of the mountain, and going up higher, that he might pray for them; and that if it pleased God, he might see the effects of his labours, there appeared to him an innumerable flock of birds of many coulours, signifying the number of holy persons of both sexes of the Irish nation, who should come to him as their apostle at the day of judgment, to be presented before the tribunal of Christ. After a life spent in the active exertion of good to mankind, St. Patrick, in a healthy old age, passed from this world to the Lord, and changing this life for a better, with the saints and elect of God he rejoices for evermore.
     (1) King of Connaught.

     (2) A mountain in the west of Connaught, county of Mayo, now
     called Croagh-Patrick.

     (3) V.R. that no Irishman may be alive on the day of
     judgment, because they will be destroyed seven years before
     in honour of St. Patrick.
55. Saint Patrick resembled Moses in four particulars. The angel spoke to him in the burning bush. He fasted forty days and forty nights upon the mountain. He attained the period of one hundred and twenty years. No one knows his sepulchre, nor where he was buried; sixteen(1) years he was in captivity. In his twenty-fifth year, he was consecrated bishop by Saint Matheus,(2) and he was eighty-five years the apostle of the Irish. It might be profitable to treat more at large of the life of this saint, but it is now time to conclude this epitome of his labours.(3)
     (1) V.R. Fifteen.

     (2) V.R. By the holy bishop Amatheus.

     (3) Here ends the Vatican MS. collated by Mr. Gunn.
(Here endeth the life of the holy bishop, Saint Patrick.) (After this, the MSS. give as 56, the legend of king Arthur, which in this edition occurs in 50.)


     * These titles are not part of the original work, but added
     in the MSS. by a later hand.
57. Woden begat Beldeg, who begat Beornec, who begat Gethbrond, who begat Aluson, who begat Ingwi, who begat Edibrith, who begat Esa, who begat Eoppa, who begat Ida. But Ida had twelve sons, Adda, Belric, Theodric, Ethelric, Theodhere, Osmer, and one queen, Bearnoch, Ealric. Ethelric begat Ethelfrid: the same is Aedlfred Flesaur. For he also had seven sons, Eanfrid, Oswald, Oswin, Oswy, Oswudu, Oslac, Offa. Oswy begat Alfrid, Elfwin, and Egfrid. Egfrid is he who made war against his cousin Brudei, king of the Picts, and he fell therein with all the strength of his army, and the Picts with their king gained the victory; and the Saxons never again reduced the Picts so as to exact tribute from them. Since the time of this war it is called Gueithlin Garan.
But Oswy had two wives, Riemmelth, the daughter of Royth, son of Rum; and Eanfled, the daughter of Edwin, son of Alla.


58. Hengist begat Octa, who begat Ossa, who begat Eormenric, who begat Ethelbert, who begat Eadbald, who begat Ercombert, who begat Egbert.


59. Woden begat Casser, who begat Titinon, who begat Trigil, who begat Rodmunt, who begat Rippa, who begat Guillem Guercha,* who was the first king of the East Angles. Guercha begat Uffa, who begat Tytillus, who begat Eni, who begat Edric, who begat Aldwulf, who begat Elric.
     * Guercha is a distortion of the name of Uffa, or Wuffa,
     arising in the first instance from the pronunciation of the
     British writer; and in the next place from the error of the


60. Woden begat Guedolgeat, who begat Gueagon, who begat Guithleg, who begat Guerdmund, who begat Ossa, who begat Ongen, who begat Eamer, who begat Pubba.* This Pubba had twelve sons, of whom two are better known to me than the others, that is Penda and Eawa. Eadlit is the son of Pantha, Penda, son of Pubba, Ealbald, son of Alguing, son of Eawa, son of Penda, son of Pubba. Egfert, son of Offa, son of Thingferth, son of Enwulf, son of Ossulf, son of Eawa, son of Pubba.
     * Or Wibba.


61. Woden begat Beldeg, Brond begat Siggar, who begat Sibald, who begat Zegulf, who begat Soemil, who first separated(1) Deur from Berneich (Deira from Bernicia.) Soemil begat Sguerthing, who begat Giulglis, who begat Ulfrea, who begat Iffi, who begat Ulli, Edwin, Osfrid and Eanfrid. There were two sons of Edwin, who fell with him in battle at Meicen,(2) and the kingdom was never renewed in his family, because not one of his race escaped from that war; but all were slain with him by the army of Catguollaunus,(3) king of the Guendota. Oswy begat Egfrid, the same is Ailguin, who begat Oslach, sho begat Alhun, who begat Adlsing, who begat Echun, who begat Oslaph. Ida begat Eadric, who begat Ecgulf, who begat Leodwald, who begat Eata, the same is Glinmaur, who begat Eadbert and Egbert, who was the first bishop of their nation.
     (1) V.R. Conquered.

     (2) Hatfield, in the West Riding of Yorkshire.  See Bede's
     Eccles. Hist.

     (3) Cadwalla, king of the Western Britons.
Ida, the son of Eoppa, possessed countries on the left-hand side of Britain, i.e. of the Humbrian sea, and reigned twelve years, and united* Dynguayth Guarth-Berneich.
     * V.R. United the castle, i.e. Dinguerin and Gurdbernech,
     which two countries were in one country, i.e. Deurabernech;
     Anglice Diera and Bernicia.  Another MS. Built Dinguayrh
     Guarth Berneich.
62. Then Dutgirn at that time fought bravely against the nation of the Angles. At that time, Talhaiarn Cataguen* was famed for poetry, and Neirin, and Taliesin and Bluchbard, and Cian, who is called Guenith Guaut, were all famous at the same time in British poetry.
     * Talhaiarn was a descendant of Coel Godebog, and chaplain
     to Ambrosius.
The great king, Mailcun,* reigned among the Britons, i.e. in the district of Guenedota, because his great-great-grandfather, Cunedda, with his twelve sons, had come before from the left-hand part, i.e. from the country which is called Manau Gustodin, one hundred and forty-six years before Mailcun reigned, and expelled the Scots with much slaughter from those countries, and they never returned again to inhabit them.
     * Better known as Maelgwn.
63. Adda, son of Ida, reigned eight years; Ethelric, son of Adda, reigned four years. Theodoric, son of Ida, reigned seven years. Freothwulf reigned six years. In whose time the kingdom of Kent, by the mission of Gregory, received baptism. Hussa reigned seven years. Against him fought four kings, Urien, and Ryderthen, and Guallauc, and Morcant. Theodoric fought bravely, together with his sons, against that Urien. But at that time sometimes the enemy and sometimes our countrymen were defeated, and he shut them up three days and three nights in the island of Metcaut; and whilst he was on an expedition he was murdered, at the instance of Morcant, out of envy, because he possessed so much superiority over all the kings in military science. Eadfered Flesaurs reigned twelve years in Bernicia, and twelve others in Deira, and gave to his wife Bebba, the town of Dynguaroy, which from her is called Bebbanburg.*
     * Bambrough.  See Bede, iii. 6, and Sax. Chron. A.D. 547.
Edwin, son of Alla, reigned seventeen years, seized on Elmete, and expelled Cerdic, its king. Eanfled, his daughter, received baptism, on the twelfth day after Pentecost, with all her followers, both men and women. The following Easter Edwin himself received baptism, and twelve thousand of his subjects with him. If any one wishes to know who baptized them, it was Rum Map Urbgen:* he was engaged forty days in baptizing all classes of the Saxons, and by his preaching many believed on Christ.
     * See Bede's Eccles. Hist.  From the share which Paulinus
     had in the conversion of the Northumbrian king, it has been
     inferred that he actually baptized him; but Nennius
     expressly states, that the holy sacrament was administered
     by Rhun, the son of Urien. The Welsh name of Paulinus is
     Pawl Hen, or Polin Eagob.
64. Oswald son of Ethelfrid, reigned nine years; the same is Oswald Llauiguin;(1) he slew Catgublaun (Cadwalla),(2) king of Guenedot,(3) in the battle of Catscaul,(4) with much loss to his own army. Oswy, son of Ethelfrid, reigned twenty-eight years and six months. During his reign, there was a dreadful mortality among his subjects, when Catgualart (Cadwallader) was king among the Britons, succeeding his father, and he himself died amongst the rest.(5) He slew Penda in the field of Gai, and now took place the slaughter of Gai Campi, and the kings of the Britons, who went out with Penda on the expedition as far as the city of Judeu, were slain.
     (1) Llauiguin, means the "fair," or the "bounteous hand."

     (2) This name has been variously written; Bede spells it
     Caedualla (Cadwalla); Nennius, Catgublaun; the Saxon
     Chronicle, Ceadwalla; and the Welsh writers, Cadwallon and
     Kalwallawn: and though the identity of the person may be
     clearly proved, it is necessary to observe these particulars
     to distinguish him from Cadwaladr, and from another
     Caedualla or Caedwalla, a king of the West Saxons; all of
     whom, as they lived within a short time of each other, have
     been frequently confounded together.—Rees's Welsh Saints.

     (3) Gwynedd, North Wales.

     (4) Bede says at Denis's brook.

     (5) The British chronicles assert that Cadwallader died at
     Rome, whilst Nennius would lead us to conclude that he
     perished in the pestilence at home.
65. Then Oswy restored all the wealth, which was with him in the city, to Penda; who distributed it among the kings of the Britons, that is Atbert Judeu. But Catgabail alone, king of Guenedot, rising up in the night, excaped, together with his army, wherefore he was called Catgabail Catguommed. Egfrid, son of Oswy, reigned nine years. In his time the holy bishop Cuthbert died in the island of Medcaut.* It was he who made war against the Picts, and was by them slain.
     * The isle of Farne.
Penda, son of Pybba, reigned ten years; he first separated the kingdom of Mercia from that of the North-men, and slew by treachery Anna, king of the East Anglians, and St. Oswald, king of the North Men. He fought the battle of Cocboy, in which fell Eawa, son of Pybba, his brother, king of the Mercians, and Oswald, king of the North-men, and he gained the victory by diabolical agency. He was not baptized, and never believed in God.
66. From the beginning of the world to Constantinus and Rufus, are found to be five thousand six hundred and fifty-eight years.
Also from the two consuls, Rufus and Rubelius, to the consul Stilicho, are three hundred and seventy-three years.
Also from Stilicho to Valentinian, son of Placida, and the reign of Vortigern, are twenty-eight years.
And from the reign of Vortigern to the quarrel between Guitolinus and Ambrosius, are twelve years, which is Guoloppum, that is Catgwaloph.* Vortigern reigned in Britain when Theodosius and Valentinian were consuls, and in the fourth year of his reign the Saxons came to Britain, in the consulship of Felix and Taurus, in the four hundredth year from the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ.
     * In Carmarthenshire.  Perhaps the town now called Kidwelly.
From the year in which the Saxons came into Britain, and were received by Vortigern, to the time of Decius and Valerian, are sixty-nine years.

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